Introduction to my May2002 Cookeville Clifford Algebra talk:

Complex CliffordPeriodicity

Cl(2N;C) = Cl(2;C) x ...(N times tensorproduct)... x Cl(2;C)

Cl(2;C) = M2(C) = 2x2 complex matrices

spinor representation = 1x2 complex columnspinors

Hyperfinite II1 vonNeumann Algebra factor is the completionof the union of all the tensor products

Cl(2;C) x ...(N times tensor product)... xCl(2;C)

By looking at the spinor representation, you seethat "the hyperfinite II1 factor is the smallest von Neumann algebracontaining the creation and annihilation operators on a fermionicFock space of countably infinite dimension."

In other words, Complex Clifford Periodicity leadsto the complex hyperfinite II1 factor which represents Dirac'selectron-positron fermionic Fock space.

Now, generalize this to get arepresentation of ALL the particles and fields ofphysics.

Use RealClifford Periodicity to construct aReal HyperfiniteII1 factor as the completion of the unionof all the tensor products

Cl(1,7;R) x ...(N times tensor product)... xCl(1,7;R)

where the Real Clifford Periodicity is

Cl(N,7N;R) = Cl(1,7;R) x ...(N times tensorproduct)... x Cl(1,7;R)

The components of the Real Hyperfinite II1 factorare each

Cl(1,7;R)

[ my convention is (1,7) = (-+++++++) ]

Cl(1,7) is 2^8 = 16x16 =256-dimensional, and has graded structure

`1   8   28   56   70   56   28   8   1`
What are thephysical interpretations of itsrepresentations?

There are two mirror image half-spinors, each ofthe form of a real (1,7) column vector with octonionicstructure.

The 1 represents:

• the neutrino.
The 7 represent:
• the electron;
• the red, blue, and green up quarks;
• the red, blue, and green down quarks.
One half-spinor represents first-genenerationfermion particles, and its mirror image represents first-generationfermion antiparticles.

Second and third generation fermions come fromdimensional reduction of spacetime, so that

• first generation - octonions
• second generation - pairs of octonions
• third generation - triples of octonions

There is a (1,7)-dimensional vectorrepresentation that corresponds to an 8-dimensional high-energyspacetime with octonionic structure

that reduces at lower energies to quaternionicstructures that are

• a (1,3)-dimensional physical spacetime [my convention is (1,3)=(-+++)]
• a (0,4)-dimensional internal symmetry space

There is a 28-dimensonal bivector representationthat corresponds to the gauge symmetry Lie algebraSpin(1,7)

that reduces at lower energiesto:

• a 16-dimensional U(2,2) = U(1)xSU(2,2) = U(1)xSpin(2,4) whose conformal Lie algebra / Lie group structure leads to gravity by a mechanism similar to the MacDowell-Mansouri mechanism;
• a 12-dimensional SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) Standard Model symmetry group that is represented on the internal symmetry space by the structure SU(3) / SU(2)xU(1) = CP2.

There is a 1-dimensional scalar representation forthe Higgsmechanism.

The above structures fit together to form aLagrangian

that reduces to a Lagrangian for Gravity plus theStandard Model.

Representations have geometric structure relatedto E6

E6 is an exceptional simple graded Lie algebra ofthe second kind:

E6 = g =g-2 + g-1 + g0 + g1 + g2

g0 = so(1,7) + R + iR

dim g-1 = 16

dim g-2 = 8

This gives real Shilovboundary geometry of S1xS7 for(1,7)-dimensional high-energy spacetime representation and for thefirst generation half-spinor fermion representations.

The geometry of the representation spaces, alongwith combinatorial structure of second and third generation fermions,allows calculation of relative force strengths and particlemasses:

• electromagnetic fine structure constant = 1/137.03608
• weak force - Higgs VEV = 252.5 GeV
• Higgs mass = 145.8 GeV
• Gfermi = (Gweak)(Mproton)^2 = 1.02 x 10^(-5)
• W+ mass = W- mass = 80.326 GeV
• Z0 mass = 91.862 GeV
• color force strength = 0.6286 (at 0.245 GeV) - perturbative QCD running gives
• color force strength = 0.167 (at 5.3 GeV)
• color force strength = 0.121 (at 34 GeV)
• color force strength = 0.106 (at 91 GeV)
• If Nonperturbative QCD and other things are taken into account, then the color force strength = 0.123 (at 91 GeV)
• Gravitational G = (Ggravity)(Mproton)^2 = 5 x 10^(-39)

• Me = 0.5110 MeV (assumed, since it is mass ratios that are calculated)
• Me-neutrino = Mmu-neutrino = Mtau-neutrino = 0 (tree-level)
• Md = Mu = 312.8 MeV (constituent quark mass)

• Mmu = 104.8 MeV
• Ms = 625 MeV (constituent quark mass)
• Mc = 2.09 GeV (constituent quark mass)

• Mtau = 1.88 GeV
• Mb = 5.63 GeV (constituent quark mass)
• Mt = 130 GeV (constituent Truth Quark mass)

However:

Fermilab says that the T-quark mass is about170 GeV.

?? Which is the TrueT-quark mass: 130 or 170 ??

The quote is from John Baez's web page week 175 athttp://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/week175.html

E6 GLA structure is from Soji Kaneyuki's writing in Analysis andGeometry on Complex Homogeneous Domains, by Jacques Faraut, SojiKaneyuki, Adam Koranyi, Qi-keng Lu, and Guy Roos (Birkhauser 2000).

Frank D. (Tony) Smith, Jr., Cartersville,GA, March 2002http://www.innerx.net/personal/tsmith/TShome.html