Tony Smith's Home Page
15,330,000,000 years ago, our Universe formed and Inflation began. 5,000,000,000 years ago, the Sun formed. 4,600,000,000 years ago, the Earth formed. 4,400,000,000 years ago, the Moon formed. 3,800,000,000 years ago, Fe3O4 Magnetite ferrous Banded Iron formations begin to be formed by bacteria. 3,000,000,000 years ago, photosynthesis releases O2 oxygen. 2,500,000,000 years ago, end of Archaean and beginning of Proterozoic.
According to Earth and Life through Time, by Steven M. Stanley (Freeman, 1986, 1989, p. 258): "... Life forms that do possess chromosomes as well as nuclei and other organelles are known as eukaryotes. Of all the cellular life forms in the world today, only bacteria and cyanobacteria are prokaryotes . All other cellular taxa are eukaryotes, and fossils of these are unknown from the Archaean and early portion of the Proterozoic ...". According to Understanding the Earth, ed. by Brown, Hawkesworth, and Wilson (Cambridge 1992, p. 439): "... cyanobacteria ...[are]... often known as the blue-green algae ...".
2,400,000,000 years ago, Fe2O3 Hematite ferric iron Red Bed formations start to form from atmospheric O2. 2,200,000,000 years ago, Earth was a Snowball, glaciers extending to within 11 degrees of its Equator. 2,000,000,000 years ago, Oklo fission reactor starts in Gabon. 850,000,000 (to 650,000,000) years ago, a severe Ice Age.
(Note - Our Sun, located in a LocalBubble, orbits our Milky WayGalaxy in 200 myr at 230 km/sec, while spiral density waves orbitin 290 myr at about 160 km/sec at the 8.5 kpc = 27,700 lyr radius ofthe Sun. See MassExtinctions and The Sun's Encounters with Spiral Arms,astro-ph/9802174, by Erik M. Leitch & Gautam Vasisht ofCaltech.)
570,000,000 years ago, Cambrian begins - Species Explosion. 480,000,000 years ago, end of Cambrian. 420,000,000 years ago, end of Ordovician. 400,000,000 (to 350,000,000) years ago, North America and Europe began to collide with Gondwanaland (including Africa) to form Pangaea (and the Appalachian Mountains), - millipedes, insects, primitive sharks, amphibians, and ferns appear - - Chinese 380,000,000+ year Superior Epoch - - date described on Maya Stela D at Quirigua. 360,000,000 years ago, end of Devonian - - does not seem to coincide with Sun being in Galactic spiral arm. 250,000,000 years ago, Permo-Triassic Extinction due to comet impact, perhaps coincident with Cosmic Ray Bursts from merging neutron stars. 200,000,000 years ago, end of Triassic - Pangaea breakup begins with formation of massive Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. 90,000,000 years ago, Pangaea breakup forms North Atlantic Ocean - - modern sharks appear - - Chinese 96,961,740 year Superior Epoch - - date described on Maya Stela F at Quirigua. 64,000,000 years ago, Mesozoic-Cenozoic Extinction, perhaps due to asteroid impact. The primary impact site may have been in Yucatan, Mexico, with many secondary impacts, including 3 along a great circle: Manson in Iowa, USA; Siberia; and China. Taking continental drift into account, antipodal to Yucatan, the massive Deccan lava flows occurred in India. David Carlisle claims "... we ... have found unequivocal supernova debris ...[from 64,000,000 years ago]... in the form of the silver isotope [107 made from palladium 107] anomaly and in the iodine 129 anomaly." 50,000,000 years ago - early Cetaceans appeared. 35,000,000 years ago to 30,000,000 years ago - Antarctica separates from South America and Australia - glaciation lowers sea level - - whales thrive on food. 20,000,000 years ago - Chinese 23,639,040 year Three Sequences - - Cetaceans with large brains, including Dolphins, appeared. 3,000,000 years ago - Steve Stanley, Children of the Ice Age (Harmony Books 1996), describes what happened: The present Ice Age began when the Isthmus of Panama emerged to block the Atlantic-Pacific connection, creating a conveyor belt of cold salty water that sinks near the Arctic 0cean and goes back south, instead of carrying heat to the Arctic Ocean. Australopithecus lived in transitional woodlands near trees, because with no stone weapons and no fire, trees were the only way Australopithecus could avoid the lions. The ice age killed the trees, and with the trees gone, the lions killed Australopithecus. Homo, smart enough to defend itself with fire and stone, could live on the ground. Homo's intelligence required a large brain, which meant difficult childbirth and a long dangerous childhood. Homo's survival required couples to mate for life to care for their few children over a long childhood. 2,000,000 years ago - Yellowstone volcanic caldera eruption vented 2500 cubic kilometers of ash and pumice, another stress event that could have affected human evolution. 788,000 years ago - the latest reversal of Earth's magnetic field. Such reversals have occurred throughout the Earth's history, with no obvious regularity, and with roughly equal total time in each of the two polarities. 340,000-330,000 years ago - Geminga supernova explosion irradiates Earth. Glaciation of Earth. Neanderthals displaced Homo Erectus. 270,000-230,000 years ago - Glaciation of Earth. 160,000-130,000 years ago - Glaciation of Earth, beginning the African/Oceanic Ice Age Civilization, as Modern Humans displaced the Neanderthals in Africa and Oceanic areas. 115,000 years ago - Early Wisconsin Glaciation of North America. 70,000 years ago - Early Wurm Glaciation of Europe - Toba Explosive Volcanic Eruption of 800 cubic kilometers of ash into the air - a stress event that may have produced a bottleneck minimum of human population at the level of about a few thousand people. 35,000 years ago - Geminga shock wave hits Earth. Late Wisconsin Glaciation of Earth, beginning the European Ice Age Civilization, as the Cro-Magnon Modern Humans displaced the Neanderthals in Europe. 21,000 to 18,000 years ago - last Glacial Maximum of Earth. 11,600 years ago - Younger Dryas cold snap, with temperatures 14 degrees C below present-day, after which the Vela X supernova was seen on Earth and the Taurid/Encke comet fragmented, and a very sudden (50 years or so) warming event ended the Ice Age and marked the start of the HOLOCENE AGE of warm climate and glacial retreat.
If 11,600 years ago marked the beginning of the Rule of MortalHumans on Earth according to Manetho (Egyptian historian ca. 343 BC),then
his immediately preceding period of 11,025 years of Rule byDemigods and Spirits of the Dead (followers of Horus)would have begun about 22,625 years ago, or about the time of thebeginning of the last Glacial Maximum, and
his first period, preceding that, of 13,900 years of Ruleof Gods on Earth would have begun about 36,525 years ago, or aboutthe time of the Geminga shock wave, the Late Wisconsin Glaciation,and the appearance of Cro-Magnons.
The total period of the Mantho's Ice AgeCivilization prior to the Rule of Mortal Humans is thereforeabout 36,525 - 11,600 = 24,925 years, which is approximately theEarth precession period of 26,000years and the travel time of a light beamfrom the center of our Galaxy to our Sun, about 25,000 light yearsdistance. It may have been the time of construction of the GizaComplex of the Sphinx and the Pyramids, including the GreatGolden Pyramid. The Ice Age Civilization may have been morespiritual and less crudely technological than the present Rule ofMortal Humans.
This unconventional interpretation of Manetho's chronology is notinconsistent with his list of 30 Egyptian dynasties from about 2920BC to about 343 BC, but it does extend his chronology from being ahistory of the past to a History of the Past and Future, in which weare now living near the end of the Rule of Mortal Humans.
After the end of the Ice Age about 11,600 years ago, the glaciers melted and sea level rose about 35 meters to its present level, a process that took about 4,000 years. In the very early stages of the process, about 11,600 years ago, the northern Sunda Shelf near China, Korea, and Japan began to flood, forcing the Jomon people to move to the high ground of what is now the Japanese Islands, and disrupting the Jomon/Sunda Shelf part of Ice Age Civilization. In Africa, Arabia, and India, things were more gradual and displacements less severe. The African part of Ice Age Civilization had large lakes for another 1,000 years or so following the 4,000 year melting process, so that the Abyssinian/African Nile Lake area of the Ice Age Civilization was its most highly organized remnant, and the probable source of ways to cope with the changed circumstances of the post-Ice Age world, including agriculture, mining,written communication, and organized armies, thus forming a Global Early Civilization with a Global Early Language.
This period, 11,600 years ago to about 6,000 years ago, may havebeen the period about which Diodorus of Sicily said: "Now theEthiopians ... were the first of all men.... the Egyptians are colonists sent out by the Ethiopians, Osirishaving been the leader of the colony ... Osiris ... gathered togethera great army, with the intention of visiting all the inhabited earthand teaching the race of men how to cultivate ... for he supposedthat if he made men give up their savagery and adopt a gentle mannerof life he would receive immortal honors. ...", and that Osiris thenwent from Egypt and Ethiopia to Arabia, Greece, and India.
According to an article by Andrew Lawler in Science, 300 (2 May2003) page 723: "... a team of Chinese and U.S. researchers nowproposes that writing in China went througha long, slow evolution that stretches back ... 8000 years...".
Egyptian hieroglyphics seem to have been a fully developed system of writing at least 5,000 years ago. Perhaps Egyptian and Mayan hieroglyphics are regional forms of a Global Early Language picture-writing, and Chinese characters are a simplified abstract version of the same Global Early Language picture-writing. Perhaps such languages as cuneiform Sumerian and the Sarasvati-Sindhu language of India are less sophisticated writings used in trade and commerce. In my opinion, about 11,000 to 6,000 years ago was the latest reasonable time for construction of the Giza Sphinx and Pyramids. After about 6,000 years ago, the level of technology of the Great Pyramid at Giza could not be maintained by the economic and social structure of the indigenous population. After about 6,000 years ago, metallurgy was lost, so that gold, native copper and silver, and meteoritic iron were the only metals that remained in current use. Agriculture provided food, so it was maintained. However, also lost were higher mathematics and related theories, except as preserved in the structure and patterns of the Pyramids at Giza and the Temple at Luxoror inthe underlying patterns of games and fortunetelling such as the Tarot of the Egyptians, the FA of the Fon people, and Wei-Qi and I Ching of the Chinese.
About 5,400 years ago, according to Science NOW (19 Sep 97), the Watson Brake mound complex of 11 mounds and connecting ridges enclosing about 20 acres was constructed in North America. There is little evidence of agriculture or extensive trading networks. Soil sampling inside the earthwork retrieved few artifacts, suggesting that the builders did not conduct ceremonies there. Also, there is little evidence that people occupied the area after the complex had been completed. Around 2,000 years later, the the Poverty Point Mounds were built, and after another 2,000 years or so, the Mississippian Temple Mounds were built.
About 5,300 years ago, Fu Xi, the first of the Five Rulers of China, discovered the Ho Tu pattern and the 8 trigrams of Fu Xi. The current Chinese calendar was begun about 4,700 years ago by the third of the Five Rulers, Huang Di (Yellow Emperor). Yao (one of the Five Rulers, who had eyebrows of 8 colors) was succeeded as ruler by Shuen, who had to deal with the problems of the floods of the Wei River caused by the melted glaciers. He asked Gun to solve the problem. Gun tried to contain the floods by dams. The floods were too great to be controlled by dams, so Gun failed and was killed. Yu, the son of Gun, solved the problem by draining the floods in a controlled way. Yu then became the Jade Emperor Yu Di, the last of the Five Rulers, about 4,200 years ago. Yu introduced the Lo Shu diagram, after seeing the markings on a turtle rising from the Lo River.
The end of the Five Rulerscoincided the previous (to 1998 AD) appearance at Earth of CometHale-Bopp, and with changes in other civilizations, such as:
Qi, the son of Yu, established China's first dynasty, the Xia dynasty. Since (aside from meteorites) gold and native copper and silver were the only metals in use, and gold is where you find it, people would go wherever they had to go to get the metals and bring them to the river-based agricultural centers to trade. Since gold and silver were in the Andes, and copper was in Lake Superior, a world-wide ocean-going trade in metals began. The advent of the bronze age made the sea-traders even more wealthy and powerful, adding Bolivian tin to their inventory. The empire of the sea-traders is the basis for the legends of Atlantis. To develop their markets for tin, the sea-traders introduced bronze technology to land-based empires, such as the Shang in China. With their superior bronze technology, Lord Tang of the Shang defeated the corrupt Xia emperor Jie around 1753 BC. A few hundred years later, iron and steel metallurgy was rediscovered. Since iron and steel are superior to bronze, and since the necessary ingredients of iron ore, coal, and limestone are found near the land-based empires and are too bulky for trans-oceanic shipment by the ships of the Atlantean sea-traders, the bronze-based empires fell to iron-based ones, and the Atlantean sea-traders went broke and out of business. In Egypt, the advent of the Iron Age meant the end of Egypt as an independent power. Its last gasp was the creation of the monotheistic dynasty of Akhenaton around 1350 BC, founded at Amarna on the bank of the Nile opposite from Hermopolis. At the end of the monotheistic Egyptian dynasties, the Egyptians regressed and declined, never again to be independently powerful. About 3,000 years ago, some of the monotheistic Israelites left Egypt, becoming separated from some other like-minded people, such as the Lemba People of Africa. Upon leaving Egypt, Moses received the Torah, which was revealed to Moses in a complete form, much as Egyptian hieroglyphics had appeared in a complete form over 5,000 years ago, suggesting that they may have already then been in existence for some time. The earliest alphabetical writing found so far is from the Egyptian (Abydos-Luxor-Thebes region) of 1800-1900 BC.The 22 letters of the Hebrew alphabet of the Torah may have been derived from that alphabet. Upon leaving Egypt, the Israelis founded one of the two presently powerful societies that have maintained a continuous cultural existence for the past 3,000 years (the other being China). As part of their faith, they have diligently preserved the Torah in the form in which it was received by Moses. Israel prospered through the rule of Solomon, but after his death somewhat before 900 BC, Israel's power declined. In 883 BC Ashurnasirpal II (Ashur = Sun Guardian) became ruler of Assyria. Assyria became more powerful, and Israel was defeated by Assyria around 722 BC. In 587 BC, Babylonia defeated Israel and took many Israelites into captive exile in Babylon. Another monotheistic religion, Zoroastrianism, was founded by Zarathustra about 1400 BC, give or take a few centuries. Zarathustra, being Central Asian, might have come from the area of Gora Belukha and could have been influenced by Vedic ideas from India (where Buddhism began about 500 BC) and by Taoist ideas from China (where Buddhism was cultivated). For instance, the Zoroastrian symbol Faravahar
contains a central circle (Tai Ji),which has two legs (Yin-Yang, I Ching), its tail has 3 layers of feathers (3 Realms, Tai Hsuan Ching), and its wings have 5 layers of feathers (5 Elements). Perhaps the being holding a circle might represent the Original God Ahura-Mazda holding the Tao. Ahura-Mazda, represented by man, and 6 Immortal Amesha Spentas, represented by stone/sky, water, earth, plants, animals, and fire/light, make up the Zoroastrian Heptad. In addition to Ahura-Mazda, Zoroastrianism had two lesser Ahuras, Varuna and Mithra. Mithra became the bull-slaying god of pre-Christian Roman Mithraism, which was somewhat similar to the Greek Cult of Dionysus.
Between about 1700 and 700 B.C., after the Watson Brake Mounds and before the Mississippian Temple Mounds were built, the Poverty Point Mounds were built on 400 acres near the Mississippi River in North America.
Around 1000 BC, China was also a presently powerful society that has maintained a continuous cultural existence for the past 3,000 years. Around 1111 BC, while China was still in the bronze age, Wu-wang led the Zhou to defeat the corrupt Shang emperor Jou the Terrible.Jou the Terrible had imprisoned his good and wise Prime Minister, Jizi. When freed from prison by Wu-wang, Jizi remained loyal to the Shang dynasty, so he decided not to stay in the Zhou empire. Jizi and 5,000 followers left China and founded the state of Korea and also perhaps the Olmec civilization. The body of Jizi is entombed in Pyongyang.
Othersleaving China at about the same time may have founded, or at leasthad contact with, the Olmecs of Mesoamerica.
The father of Wu-wang, Wen-wang, applied a special arrangement of the 64 elements of the I Ching, to lay the groundwork for his son's defeat of the Shang and establishment of the Zhou dynasty. The Zhou dynasty established its capitol at Xi'an, on the Wei River, and ordered its empire systematically. For instance,
land was divided into square frameworks with 9 belts of land surrounding the central capitol. The resulting pattern is a 19x19 grid of boundary lines, with the capital at the center, and 4 quadrants (SW, SE, NE, NW). Placement of Qi markers on the intersection points of the grid shows how to establish a good and stable government, and may be an early application of the ancient game Wei-Qi, which has similarities to Cellular Automata, Ising Models,and Feynman Checkerboard physics models, and whose moves might be determinable by the I Ching. The land in the Wei River valley (or anywhere else) is not flat and square, so that the actual boundaries would not be exactly square. The Wei-Qi game reflects that by never using an exactly square board. If the center lines through the capitol are omitted, and the outermost boundary lines are omitted, the Wei-Qi board has four 8x8 quadrants, and can represent the Clifford algebra Cl(0,8). The 19-line Wei-Qi board is similar to the 19-line grid used by the Egyptians for art and architecture. The Mayans may have used a similar grid. When the Iron Age came to China around 800 BC, the orderly structure of the Zhou dynasty was undermined. The power of the Zhou declined through the Spring and Autumn Period (722 BC - 481 BC), leading to the Warring States Period (403 BC - 221 BC).
About 400 BC, Korea invaded the Japanese Islands. Using the wealthof organized agriculture and military Iron Age technology, theKoreans displaced the Jomonpeople of the Ice Age Civilization and,as the Yayoi, founded the present-day Japanese civilization.
During the turmoil of the Iron Age, particularly around 1,500 to 500 BC, Lao Zi and Confucius were in China and Sakyamuni Buddha was in India. The Iron Age instability was ended by the Qin who united China in 221 BC and ruled briefly before being succeeded by the Han in 202 BC. Around 40 BC, King Fang described the Musical Cycle of 53. Taoist masters disclosed such things as: optical lenses; circulation of blood in the human body "... in the Chinese medical treatise Su Wên, written in the second century BC ...", according to correspondence from P.-L. Chau in Nature 404 (30 March 2000) 431; magnetic compass (described by Wang Chhung in the Lun Heng of 83 AD); computers (the abacus of Thien Mu hsien-seng, around 190 AD); and gunpowder (Cheng Yin, the teacher of Ko Hung, around 250 AD).
According to a27 February 2003 BBC article by ArranFrood, "... In 1938 ... in KhujutRabu, just outside Baghdad ... German archaeologist Wilhelm Konigunearthed a ... 13-cm ... clay jar containing a copper cylinder that encased an iron rod ... abattery ... there are about a dozen of them ... Most sources datethe batteries to around 200 BC ...[but]... the pot itself isSassanian ... circa AD 225-640 ... Replicas can produce voltages from0.8 to nearly 2 volts ... the ancient Greeks wrote of the painkilling effect of electric eels when applied to the soles of thefeet. The Chinese had developed acupuncture, and still use ... anelectric current. This may explain the presence of needle-likeobjects found with some of the batteries. ... the batteries...[may have been]... used for electroplating ...
... In Egypt ... Hero's engine ....[ca100 BC ]... was a primitive steam-driven machine ...".
The life of Jesus, bornof Jewish parents in Bethlehem around 6 BC, marked the beginning ofthe Christian Era (Anno Domini, or AD). According toThe Gnostic Gospels, by Elaine Pagels (Random House 1979):"... What we call Eastern and Western religions, and tend to regardas separate streams, were not clearly differentiated 2,000 years ago.... if the names were changed, the"living Buddha" appropriately could say what the Gospel of Thomasattributes to the living Jesus. ... the Gospel of Thomas was onlyone of the fifty-two texts discovered [in 1945] at NagHammadi ... Gospel of Thomas 32.14-19 ...[says]...
"... Jesus said, "Let him who seeks continue seeking until he finds. When he finds, he will become troubled. When he becomes troubled, he will be astonished, and he will rule over all things." ...". ...".
Around 312 AD Constantine became Emperor of the Roman Empire,established Christianity as the Roman Religion, and went on to builda new capital at Constantinople. Roman State Christianity adopted anofficial doctrine that included the parts of Christian teaching (such as blindly faithful belief in authority of a male priesthood )that were consistent with an authoritarian male-dominated State, andrejected those parts of Christian teaching ( such as the Gospels ofThomas and of Mary Magdalene ) that encouraged independent thoughtand prominent roles for women. The Christian New State Religion wasaltered in some ways to make it more palatable for non-Christians,such as the Mithraians of the Army. One suchalteration may have been moving Jesus's birthday from around February( near the Chinese NewYear ) to 25 December ( near the Winter Solstice ). AlthoughConstantinople's city walls protected it from outside invasion for800 years or so, it much sooner lost control of much of its externalEmpire, and after about 400 years most of the Western European HolyRoman Empire was unified by Charlemagne with a capital at Rome.Bari became the last remaining Italianterritory of the Constantine Eastern Empire.
"... the narrowness of growth rings in bogoaks and archaeological timbers ...[ shows very clearly ]...that a great catastrophe struckthe Earth in AD 540. ... Not only in Northern Ireland andBritain, but right across northern Siberia, North and South America -it is a global event of some kind. ...", according to an 8 September2000 BBC article by JohnathanAmos, citing Mike Baillie, professor of palaeoecology at Queen'sUniversity in Belfast. The article also says "... cometaryfragments smashed into the atmospherethrowing up dust and gas that blocked out the Sun. This, in turn, ledto crop failures, famine and even plague among the weakened peoplesof the world. ... some archaeologists and historians are beginning tocome round to the opinion that this was the date when the DarkAges began in Northern Europe. It wasn't just when the Romansleft. ...".
Muhammad was born around 570 AD. In622 AD, Muhammad's Hegira from Mecca to Medina marked the beginningof the Islamic Era.
The Tang Dynasty of China (618-907 AD)minted copper coins, recodified laws every 20 years, expandededucation, defeated Eastern Turkish enemies and expanded Westward,absorbed Western cultural ideas through Eastern Seaports and WesternCentral Asia overland trade routes (several of the 10 MusicalCategories of the Tang dynasty originated outside China), andproduced great Art and Poetry.
Around 645,Nakatomi no Kamatari started the era of the Fujiwara clan andinstituted the Taika reforms which adopted the culture and systemof the Chinese Tang dynasty. Even after the Tang Dynasty declined inChina, its high culture was preserved in Japan.
European Crusaderstook Jerusalem in 1099.
Saladin took Jerusalem from European Crusadersin 1187.
Beginning about 1206, and continuing formost of the rest of the 13th century, Temujin (Ghenghis Khan) and hisdescendants used their Mongol horse-cavalry to defeat Chinamilitarily, but were absorbed by China Culturally, creating the Yuandynasty (1206-1368) during which China actively traded with theoutside world, not only immediate neighbors such as Russia, Japan,Korea, VietNam, Burma, and India, but also Persia, the Middle East,Africa, and Italy.
The Mongol Yuan dynasty was succeeded by the Ming Dynasty(1368-1644) established by Zhu Yuanzhang from Anhuiwho was the first Ming Emperor (1368-1398). During his reign, Chinawas the strongest and most advanced civilization on Earth. After hisdeath in 1398, his grandson Zhu Yunwen ruled unsucessfully until1402, when Zhu Di (son of Zhu Yuanzhang) overthrew his nephew ZhuYunwen.
About the same time, 1346-1353,the Black Death plague from Asiakilled about a third of the people of Europe.
What about the distant (from China) lands of Eastern North America, where the Watson Brake Mounds had been built about 5,400 years ago, and the Poverty Point Mounds had been built about 1700 to 700 B.C.? There, the time from 700 AD to 1400 AD was the time of bulding the Mississippian Temple Mounds: at Cahokia (near Collinsville, Illinois) where, according to the Cahokia website, around March 1998,
"During the process of installing horizontal drains to relieve the internal water in Monks Mound that had contributed to several severe slumping episodes along the west side (Second Terrace), the drilling rig encountered stones about 140 feet in and 40 feet below the surface of the Second Terrace. The operator said it felt like "soft stone," probably limestone or sandstone, and that it was mostly cobbles or slabs at least six inches in diameter. The drill went through about 32 feet of stones and the drill bit broke off. We have no idea what it is, what shape or size it is, or why it is there. It should not be there. No other cores or excavations have revealed stone in Monks Mound or any other mound at the site, or, as far as we know, at other Mississippian mound sites. We do not know its vertical thickness or the extent of it horizontally, other than the 32 feet that the drill went through."
and according to an update web page,
"... December, 1998 ... remote sensing tests using ... magnetometry ... revealed two "anomalies" 20 - 25 meters apart, running east and west beneath the Second Terrace, one of them directly above where the stone was encountered in the drilling ... Each anomaly is about 2 meters wide and 3 - 6 meters deep. They are above the stone itself, which is 6 - 9 meters deep. ...";
at Moundville, near Tuscaloosa, Alabama; and at Etowah (near Cartersville, Georgia). The Missippian Temple Mound sites were organized much like those of the more advanced Central Americans, such as the Maya (300 AD - 900 AD) and their succesors. They also resemble mounds in China near Xi'an, such as the Qin tomb (about 200 BC)
near the Terra Cotta Army, and other Chinese Pyramids, and the Japanese kofun earth-mound tombs that began to be constructed about 300 AD. According to Liang shu (see "When China Ruled the Seas"):"In former times [the Maya, or the people of Fusang guo] knew nothing of the Buddhist religion, but in the second year of Da Ming of the Song dynasty [485 AD], five monks from Chipin [Kabul, Afghanistan] traveled by ship to that country. They propagated Buddhist doctrines, circulated scriptures and drawings, and advised the people to relinquish worldly attachments. As a result, the customs of Fusang changed."
About 1403, Zhu Di (the third emperor of the ChineseMing Dynasty)
invaded Vietnam (in violation of an agreement of his father ZhuYuanzhang, the first Ming emperor), thus getting bogged down inguerilla warfare that lasted beyond the rest of his life, and
ordered construction of a fleet of trading ships, warships, andsupport ships to go to the China Sea and the Indian Ocean under thecommand of Zheng He, a Muslim eunuch from Yunnan whose original namewas Ma He.
In 1415 the Grand Canal from the South to Beijing was improved andreopened.
In 1421, Zhu Di established Beijing as the national capital.
Zhu Di died in 1424. His son, Zhu Gaozhi, became the fourth Mingemperor. He died in 1425 and was succeeded by Zhu Zhanji, the fifthMing emperor, who ruled until 1435.
During the reign of the fifth Ming emperor, two factions vied forpower:
Taoists and eunuchs, who wanted trade and treasure voyages andoutward expansion; and
Confucians, who wanted to develop China internally and avoidforeign commerce and foreign wars.
The Confucians won, and river barges were built instead of oceanships.
In 1426, Fan Ji, advisor to the fifth Ming emperor, said "Thepeople from afar will voluntarily submit and distant lands will comeinto our fold, and our dynasty will last for ten thousand years."
In fact, China admitted defeat (in 1428) in Vietnam, lost itstechnological advantage over the rest of the world, lost the militarymeans to export its inflated supply of paper money, and even lost itsability to prevent coastal raids by wako pirates.
Spain and Portugal began European world-wide oceanic explorationand colonization around 1500 AD, but they did not combine explorationand colonization with industrialization. After England, Cymru(Wales), and Scotland united around 1707 AD (about the time ofComet Sarabat of 1729 and thebeginning of increased Solar sunspotactivity) unifying the Island of Great Britain as a protectedisland with ocean trading ports and with sufficient population andnatural resources, Great Britain initiated the Industrial Revolutionand colonized much of the Earth.
The camera obscura, a box with a pinhole, or pin-hole camera, hadbeen used since antiquity to observe the sun, particularly duringsolar eclipses. If you are on a concrete side-walk under a tree (withleaves) during a solar eclipse, you notice that each gap among theleaves acts as a pin-hole. During the eclipse, the many roundsun-images on the side-walk beneath the tree turn into crescents onthe concrete.
In 1558, Gioseffo Zarlino (1517-1590) of Venice wrote InstitutioniHarmoniche, about all three types of music: mundana, the harmony ofthe heavenly spheres; humana, the influence of music on the humansoul; and instrumentalis, what most 20th century Americans think ofas music. He extended the ancient monophonic Platonic and Pythagoreanharmonic intervals (1:2, 2:3, 3:4) based on the numbers 1,2,3,4 topolyphonic music based on the numbers 1,2,3,4,5,6.
In 1589, Zarlino wrote Sopplimenti Musicali, in which he advocatedequally tempered tuning for the lute.
In the previous year (1588) the Spanish Armada was defeated, aspower shifted from the Mediterranean to Northern Europe.
In 1619, Kepler(1571-1630) wrote Harmonice Mundi, using just intonation and theconsonant harmonic intervals (1:2, 2:3, 3:4, 4:5, 5:6, 3:5, 5:8)supporting polyphonic music. Keplerrealized that his rough models of3-dimensional regular polytopes did not accurately describe hisastronomical laws of planetary motion (based on analysis of data ofTycho Brahe)so he used harmonic musical relationships to refine the polytopemodels. To Kepler, thepolyphonic harmonic relationships had a purpose: to form a commonbasis for the perception of the universe by all life, including lifebeyond the earth. TerryTeachout, in Commentary Magazine, Janury,2002, said: "... Hindemith['s]... opera, Die Harmonie der Welt (1957) ... used the life of theastronomer Johannes Kepler to symbolize his own search for "harmonyin all things of life and the world, and ... the loneliness of himwho finds it."...". R.Craig McCollough, for Music History II, Spring1995, said: "... In the final act,the spheres praise Kepler, singing,
Velazquez(1599-1660) used mirrors and light entering dark rooms in hiswork.
Many of the paintings of Vermeer(1632-1675) seem like studies of the interior of a camera obscura,being set in a relatively dark room into which light comes from theoutside. Did Vermeer make a scientific study of optics? Acordingto Martin Kemp (Nature 392 (5 Mar 98) 27), an executor of Vermeer'swill was Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723), who also lived inDelft, and who used microscopes to observe bacteria and to show thatweevils and fleas had normal life cycles and were not spontaneouslygenerated from wheat or dust.
Huygens(1629-1695) lived in The Hague. Huygens'Principle of optics (largely completed by 1678, not published until1690), that all points on a wave front may be regarded as newsources, is the basis for Feynman's Sum Over Histories Path IntegralQuantum Theory.
Huygens's theory of gravity (dating to 1669, not published until1690), was based on the Cartesian Vortices of Descartes(1596-1650), which might be compared to the topologicallynon-trivial 4-manifolds with closed timelike curves ofHadley.
Newton(1643-1727) developed celestial mechanics (1687) and optics(1666-1704), and worked on the relationships among ancientwisdom, alchemy, and physics.
In 1722, J.S. Bach , having learned of the equal-tempered 12 note per octavescale described in 1691 by the German musician Andreas Werckmeister(1645-1706), wrote book 1 of the Well-Tempered Clavier.
From 1753 to 1762, C. P. E. Bach (a lawyer who was the second sonof J. S. Bach and his cousin Maria Barbara Bach) wrote Essay on theTrue Art of Playing Keyboard Instruments.
On 17 December 1770 ( Marsin Opposition, Jupiter justbefore Conjunction ( with Sun andwith Milky Way Galactic Center ), andjust after the New Moon ) Beethovenwas baptized in Bonn.
In 1791, Mozartdied at age 35. Count Waldstein wrote to Beethoven:"The spirit of Mozart is mourning and weeping over the death of herbeloved. ... With the help of unremitting labour you shall receiveMozart's spirit ..."
In 1794, Beethoven completed his Op. 1 Trios.
On 26 March 1827, in Vienna, Beethovendied at age 56. From 3 P. M. to 5 P. M. Beethoven lay dying witha death-rattle in his throat, a thundersnow storm raging. After 5,there was a flash of lightning that garishly illuminated hisdeathbed. At the following violent clap of thunder, he opened hiseyes, lifted his right hand, and looked up for several seconds withhis fist clinched and a very serious, threatening expression. When helet the raised hand sink to the bed, his eyes closed half-way, and hedied.
Some thunderstorms have, below the red sprites, blue jets going upfrom the cloud tops at 300 times the speed of sound to 25 km abovethe cloud tops (Richard A. Kerr, Science 265 (5 Aug 1994) 740) and,above the red sprites, circular elves (Discover magazine, July1997).
J.-N. Niepce (1765-1833) introduced light-sensitive plates to thecamera obscura in the early 1800s, thereby inventing photography.
Turner (1775-1851), who representedlight in his paintings as seeming to have wavelike nature.
On 26 April1865, Confederate Gen. Johnston surrendered the forces of Georgia,Florida, and the Carolinas to Union Gen. Sherman, effectively endingthe American Civil War.
From 1828 to 1879,Green's Functions, Quaternions, Octonions,Electromagnetism, Riemannian Geometry, Clifford Algebras, and LieAlgebras were discovered and developed.
Seurat(1859-1891) introduced pointillism.
In 1903 Olinto De Pretto of Vicenza, Italy, published in Atte theequation e = mc^2, which equation was republished in 1904 byVeneto's Royal Science Institure, and then given to Einsteinby Michele Besso, according to Umberto Bartocci(email@example.com) of PerugiaUniversity - Dipartimento di Matematica.
In 1905 Einsteinpublished his special theory of relativity, which was implicit in theequations of Maxwell.
Mondrian (1872-1944) studiedSeurat's pointillism.
Mondrian later studied the Theosophical work of M. H. J. Schoenmaekers about the symbolic meaning of lines and the mathematical construction of the universe. From then on, Mondrian used only rectangular or diamond figures, and only the subtractive primary colors yellow, cyan, and magenta.
"Some men like Seurat or like Mondrian were not retinalists, even in wholly seeming to be so." In 1912, Duchamp was painting a chess King and Queen surrounded by swift nudes, analogous to the consitutent Quark and AntiQuark surrounded by gluons and virtual quark-antiquark pairs in the Pion of the D4-D5-E6 physics model. Later that year, Duchamp visited Munich, where he was inspired to move from chess pieces to the bride and bachelors of The Large Glass, a complex work a part of which contains 3 windows similar to the 3 windows of Machu Picchu.
In Munich, Duchamp frequented theSchelling-Salon, a cafe with chess and billiards.
Another Munich billiard player, ArnoldSommerfeld, was professor of physics from 1906 to 1931. He likedto use billiards as a basis for physics problems for his students.Sommerfeld had received a degree in mathematics at KonigsbergUniversity under Felix Klein,Sommerfeld's scientific Vaterfigur.
In 1914, Duchamp's France and Sommerfeld'sGermany began World War I. It lasted until 1918,when a Flu Epidemic killed over 20,000,000 people on Earth.
In 1920-21, Einstein was invited to Munich by Sommerfeld and hisstudents, including Pauliand Heisenberg,but Einstein did not come because Nazi students threatened protestsagainst him as a Jew. Heisenberg awokeearly and worked hard in the daytime, while Pauli went to cabarets inthe evening, worked hard until dawn, and slept until noon.
In 1923-25, Pauli proposed that the electron was a spin 1/2particle that obeyed the Exclusion Principle.
In 1925, Heisenberg applied Cayley'sMatrix Algebra to Quantum Mechanics.
In 1926-27, Heisenberg and Diracwere at Copenhagen: Heisenberg formulated the Uncertainty Principle;Dirac studied quantum mechanics, including the relativistic theory;and Stueckelberg got his Ph.D. atMunich under Sommerfeld.
In 1931, Pauli predicted the existenceof the neutrino to explain the energy distribution of electrons inbeta decay.
In 1932, Dirac used CliffordAlgebras to formulate the QED Diracequation and Fermi interpreted QED as a gauge theory.
In 1934, Stueckelberg (a yearbefore Yukawa's paper) proposed that the nuclear force is carried bya massive boson.
By 1938 Stueckelberg had appliedFermi's 1932 QED gauge theory to describe gauge-fixing of generalneutral vector fields, and Klein had invented non-abelian gauge fieldtheory.
In 1939, Lise Meitner (who was born inVienna in 1878, worked in Berlin with Otto Hahn from 1907 to 1938,when she as a Jew emigrated to Sweden) first described how to produceenergy from nuclear reactions (she described chain reaction offission of Uranium 235, which reaction produced Barium, neutrons, andother fission products).
In 1940, Paulias a Jew feared the military success of the Nazis and left Europe forthe USA, thus interrupting his collaborationin Zurich with Jung on therelationships among alchemy, archetypes,and theoretical physics. Their workemphasized the number 4 = 3+1 of the quaternions, double quaternionsor octonions, and 7-dimensional spaces,all of which are related to the D4-D5-E6-E7-E8VoDou model of physics. In February 1940, the Manhattan Projectto produce nuclear energy was begun by USA President FranklinRoosevelt under L. J. Briggs of the National Bureau of Standards witha budget of $6,000.00.
In 1940-1941, radarenabled the Allies to win the air Battle of Britain, thus defeatingthe German Operation Sea Lion plan to invade Britain.
On 6 December 1941, the Manhattan Project wastransferred to the Office of Scientific Research and Developmentunder Vannevar Bush. The next day, Japanattacked USA naval bases in Hawaii and in the Phillipines. Then theUSA entered World War II and the War Department was given jointresponsibility for the Manhattan Project. 1941 was a ChineseYear of the Snake, which as Ouroborosencircles the World Egg (the Manhattan Project), which thefollowing year,
1942, hatched to produce Nuclear Fission of U235 (in Chicago on 2December 1942). Also, by 1942, 1942 Stueckelberghad renormalized QED and invented Feynmandiagrams.
In 1943, Bethe(who had received his Ph.D. under Sommerfeld in 1928, who won the1967 Nobel Prize for his 1939 work on the carbon cycle ofthermonuclear fusion in the sun and stars, and who had worked ondevelopment of radar at MIT) went toLos Alamos to work on nuclear fission andfusion bombs.
From 12 April 1945 to January 1953,Harry Truman was President of the USA.Some of Give'Em-Hell-Harry's accomplishments were that he:
References include the Encyclopaedia Britannica and the TrumanLibrary.
"... The culmination of the Manhattan Project wasTRINITY, which was detonated at 5:29:45 am on July 16, 1945,at the Trinity site in a central New Mexico desert called the"Jornada del Muerto" ...
... The blast created a flash oflight that was seen over the entire state of New Mexico and inparts of Arizona, Texas, and Mexico. ... The explosive device itself... was ... an implosion plutonium weapon. The explosion had a"yield" of the equivalent of 19 kilotons of TNT ... Trinity was notmade public until August 6, immediately after a second bomb [U-235 ] nicknamed "Little Boy" was detonated 1850 feet overHiroshima, Japan. It destroyed a large portion of the city and killedan estimated 70,000 to 130,000 people. On August 9, a third bomb (thesecond used on Japan) [ plutonium ] nicknamed "Fat Man" wasdetonated over Nagasaki, Japan. It killed an estimated 45,000 moreJapanese. On August 14, Japansurrendered. ...", according to aSASO web page.
In December 1950, according toEncyclopaediaBritannica:
"... Ulam had proposed a new fission weapon design, using the mechanical shock of an ordinary fission bomb to compress to a very high density a second fissile core.
[ Compare playing pool on an elliptical pool table with a ball at one focus and the hole at the other focus. ]
(This two-stage fission device was conceived entirely independently of the thermonuclear program, its aim being to use fissionable materials more economically.) Early in 1951 Ulam went to see Teller and proposed that the two-stage approach be used to compress and ignite a thermonuclear secondary. Teller suggested radiation implosion, rather than mechanical shock, as the mechanism for compressing the thermonuclear fuel in the second stage. On March 9, 1951, Teller and Ulam presented a report containing both alternatives, entitled "On Heterocatalytic Detonations I. Hydrodynamic Lenses and Radiation Mirrors." A second report, dated April 4, by Teller, included some extensive calculations by Frederic de Hoffmann and elaborated on how a thermonuclear bomb could be constructed. The two-stage radiation implosion design proposed by these reports, which led to the modern concept of thermonuclear weapons, became known as the Teller-Ulam configuration. ... In September 1951, Los Alamos proposed a test of the Teller-Ulam concept for November 1952. Engineering of the device, nicknamed Mike, began in October 1951, but unforeseen difficulties required a major redesign of the experiment in March 1952. The Mike device weighed 82 tons, owing in part to cryogenic (low-temperature) refrigeration equipment necessary to keep the deuterium in liquid form. It was successfully detonated during Operation Ivy, on Nov. 1, 1952 (local time), at Enewetak. ...
[ Here is an image of "... The Mike fireball a few seconds after detonation. ...", from jimmy45122 web page:
Below is an image of the Mike mushroom cloud from a PBS web page which states that "... Within 90 seconds the fire ball had reached 57,000 feet. The cloud, when it had reached its furthest extent, was about 100 miles wide. The explosion wiped Elugelab off the face of the planet, and destroyed life on the surrounding islands. ...":
Among the substances used in shielding tests was Limonite (Fe2O3+H2O) shipped by Frank Smith (my father) from Bartow County, Georgia. ]
... The explosion achieved a yield of 10.4 million tons of TNT, or 500 times larger than the Nagasaki bomb, and it produced a crater 6,240 feet in diameter and 164 feet deep.
With the Teller-Ulam configuration proved, deliverable thermonuclear weapons were designed and initially tested during Operation Castle in 1954. The first test of the series, conducted on March 1, 1954 (local time), was called Bravo. It used solid lithium deuteride rather than liquid deuterium and produced a yield of 15 megatons, 1,000 times as large as the Hiroshima bomb. Here the principal thermonuclear reaction was the fusion of deuterium and tritium. The tritium was produced in the weapon itself by neutron bombardment of the lithium-6 isotope in the course of the fusion reaction. Using lithium deuteride instead of liquid deuterium eliminated the need for cumbersome cryogenic equipment. ...".
Sommerfeld died in 1951. By then, Stueckelberg(with Petermann) had invented the renormalization group.
1954 - Yang, Mills,and Shaw had re-invented non-abelian gauge field theory.
1955 - Einstein died. - Contraceptivepill Boston trials showed success. - USAPresident Eisenhower presents to Congress the Clay Committe reportfor a National Interstate Highway Network, and the following yearthe Interstate Highway System, called by Secretary of CommerceSinclair Weeks "the greatest publicworks program in the history of the world", began with a $1.2billion allocation for its first year.
1957 - Sputnikorbits Earth.
Pauli died in 1958.Also in 1958, Hua Luo-Geng wrote "HarmonicAnalysis of Functions of Several Complex Variables in the ClassicalDomains". Later, Hua wrote two popular practical books, PopularLectures on Overall Planning Methods (1965) and Popular Lectures onOptimal Seeking Methods (1971). The 1971 book used, among otherthings, the 0.618 method of the GoldenRatio. Even though he studied in Cambridge under Hardy for 2years in the 1930s, Hua received no academic degree until he wasabout 69 years old, and that was an honorary doctorate from Nancy,France.
Around 1960, Liu Yao-Yang invented the Ceng Zi (Quark) model ofparticle physics. He was working at the University of Science andTechnology of China, which was then located at Beijing, when heinvented the Ceng Zi model. He wrote a paper and submitted it to aChinese journal. It was turned down because the editors thought thepaper was not correct. After the quark model had been independentlyre-invented around 1962-1964, with most of the credit going to MurrayGell-Mann, the editors apologized for rejecting the paper. LiuYao-Yang is still working at the University of Science and Technologyof China, which is now at Anhui, in the fields of atomic andmolecular physics, quantum field theory, and quantization ofgravity.
1961 - YuriGagrin orbits Earth.
"... in 1962 ... STARFISH PRIME ...
... was one of the high-altitude nuclear tests in the OperationFishbowl series conducted in the Pacific Proving Ground ... It waslaunched in the Johnston Island area to an altitude of about 400kilometers by a Thor rocket and had a yield of 1.4 megatons. ... Whena nuclear weapon detonates at a high altitude, many of the effectsare attenuated. Most of the x-ray energy is absorbed in the air,which decreases the fireball temperature. Absorption of thermal x-rayenergy also decreases the energy available for a shock wave. This allresults in the development of a toroidal or donut-shaped cloudinstead of the usual mushroom shape of ground or near groundexplosions. ... Within a second or two after the burst, a brilliantaurora appears from the bottom of the fireball. The formation of theaurora is attributed to the motion, along the lines of the earth'smagnetic field, of beta particles emitted by the radioactive fissionfragments. ...
... About a minute after the detonation, the aurora can beobserved from as far away as 2000 miles. ... The video shows footageof the auroras from ... Tongtapu (Tonga Islands) ... These aurorascan be seen for approximately 20 minutes. ...", according toanOSTI web page and its linked videos.
Also in1962, Finkelstein,Jauch, Schiminovich, and Speiser wrote a paper titled Principleof General Q Covariance that used Quaternions to describe massivecharged SU(2) bosons.
1963 - JohnFitzgerald Kennedy assassinated.Paul Hindemith died - after fleeing Hitler's Germany in 1940 to teachat Yale. TerryTeachout, in Commentary Magazine, Janury,2002, said: "... Hindemith's... book ... A Composer's World: Horizons and Limitations (1952) ...explains the essential defect of 12-tone music as follows: Theethical power of music is entirely neglected; the composer'sobligations toward his fellow men are degraded to a game ofdouble-crostics.... If music written on this basis has any messagefor others, it is the crassest order "you have to obey, you have tobelieve in my constructions," in a time when we are all so terriblyin need of some shiny little reflection of that other message, theone that Schiller and Beethoven gave tomankind ...".
1968 - Martin LutherKing and Robert Kennedyassassinated, and Duchampdied.
Heisenberg worked(with Hans-Peter Durr) onRadical Unification until his death in 1976. By then,the Standard Model SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) gauge field theory had beenestablished. 1976 was also the year of the deaths of Mao Zedong andZhou Enlai, the Tangshan earthquake, and CometWest.
1980 - RonaldReagan elected USA President.
Stueckelberg and Diracdied in 1984, one year before Hua died. Then and now, EinsteinGravity and the Standard Model have accurately described allexperimental results.
1989 - BerlinWall falls.
In 1994 Fermilab announced discovery of theT-Quark. Also in 1994, Schwingerdied. Schwinger was the last survivor of the four whorenormalized QED: Stueckelberg;Tomonaga(who died in 1979); Feynman(who died in 1988); and Schwinger.
was the year of death of Deng Xiaoping and return of Hong Kong toChina. The 1997 El Nino seemed tobe the strongest yet, a large Earthquake, between 7.9 and 7.5, hitChina about 700 km northwest of Lhasa, Tibet (The 1976Tangshan Earthquake was 7.8.), and constructionbegan on the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River. VolcanoesSoufriere on Montserrat and Popocatepetl erupted, and Mt. Etna showedactivity. In 1998, but before the Chinese New Year, a 6.2 Earthquakehit China near Beijing.
1998 and 1999 saw impeachment (but not removal) ofUSA President Clinton (for perjury and obstruction of justice in anunsuccessful attempt to avoid disclosing his oral sex with an internin the Oval Office of the White House), a NATOwar in Kosovo, record high valuationsof the USA stock market, and largeUSA trade deficits.
2000 saw a U. S. Supreme Court rulingon presidential election recounts that led to Bush defeatingGore.
At the beginning of 2002, Indiaand Pakistan had cut off diplomatic relations, travel, and trade, andtroops were massed on their common border.
Hereis an EVOLUTIONARY/GEOLOGICAL TIMELINE by Niel Brandt, HTML by PeterLamb.
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