Religion andScience

Some people (such as Sean of the Cosmic Variance blog) attack allreligion, saying:

"... when I say over and over again that my beef withreligion is that it's false ... I really mean it!...".

On the other hand, religion seems to be important to manypeople. For example, the elected representatives of the citizensof the USA (435 members of the House of Representatives and 100Senators of the 110th Congress being sworn in on 4 Jan 2007), a CNNweb page (Reuters article) at givestheir stated religious affiliations as: "…

As someone who believes in religion, and that religion isconsistent with science, and, further, that religion (properlyinterpreted) shows a path to scientific truth, I am writing this pageto describe how I think religion and science fit together.

Einstein (in the New York Times Magazine onNovember 9, 1930 pp 1-4) described Three Stages of HumanReligion:

"... what are the feelings and needs that have led men to religious thought and belief in the widest sense of the words?

[Stage 1 - Religion of Fear]... With primitive man it is above all fear that evokes religious notions - fear of hunger, wild beasts, sickness, death. Since at this stage of existence understanding of causal connections is usually poorly developed, the human mind creates illusory beings more or less analogous to itself on whose wills and actions these fearful happenings depend. Thus one tries to secure the favor of these beings by carrying out actions and offering sacrifices which, according to the tradition handed down from generation to generation, propitiate them or make them well disposed toward a mortal. In this sense I am speaking of a religion of fear ... stabilized by the formation of a special priestly caste which sets itself up as a mediator between the people and the beings they fear, and erects a hegemony on this basis.

[Stage 2 - Religion of Morals]... The desire for guidance, love, and support prompts men to form the social or moral conception of God. This is the God of Providence, who protects, disposes, rewards, and punishes; the God who, according to the limits of the believer's outlook, loves and cherishes the life of the tribe or of the human race, or even or life itself; the comforter in sorrow and unsatisfied longing; he who preserves the souls of the dead. This is the social or moral conception of God. ... In general, only individuals of exceptional endowments, and exceptionally high-minded communities, rise to any considerable extent above this level.

[Stage 3 - Cosmic Religion] But there is a third stage of religious experience ... I shall call it cosmic religious feeling. It is very difficult to elucidate this feeling to anyone who is entirely without it … The individual feels the futility of human desires and aims and the sublimity and marvelous order which reveal themselves both in nature and in the world of thought. Individual existence impresses him as a sort of prison and he wants to experience the universe as a single significant whole.

... all religions are a varying blend ...

The beginnings of cosmic religious feeling already appear at an early stage of development,

e.g., in many of the Psalms of David and in some of the Prophets. Buddhism … contains a much stronger element of this. The religious geniuses of all ages have been distinguished by this kind of religious feeling, which knows no dogma and no God conceived in man's image; so that there can be no church whose central teachings are based on it. … Looked at in this light, men like Democritus, Francis of Assisi, and Spinoza are closely akin to one another. …

In my view, it is the most important function of art and science to awaken this feeling and keep it alive in those who are receptive to it. … I maintain that the cosmic religious feeling is the strongest and noblest motive for scientific research.

Only those who realize the immense efforts and, above all, the devotion without which pioneer work in theoretical science cannot be achieved are able to grasp the strength of the emotion out of which alone such work, remote as it is from the immediate realities of life, can issue.

What a deep conviction of the rationality of the universe and what a yearning to understand … Kepler and Newton must have had to enable them to spend years of solitary labor in disentangling the principles of celestial mechanics!

Those whose acquaintance with scientific research is derived chiefly from its practical results easily develop a completely false notion of the mentality of the men who, surrounded by a skeptical world, have shown the way to kindred spirits scattered wide through the world and through the centuries. …

It is cosmic religious feeling that gives a man such strength. …".

Since Einstein said that the "beginnings" of Stage 3 CosmicReligion "already appear at an early stage of development" of HumanReligion, I will comment on Cosmic Religion aspects of HumanReligions starting with very early times

Since Einstein referred to Spinoza as a "religious genius ...distinguished by ... cosmic religious feeling", my comments will comefrom a Spinoza - Pantheist - Taoist perspective. According to theStanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy:

"… A defining feature of pantheism is allegedly that God is wholly immanent … pantheism denies the theistic view that God transcends the world …

the most complete attempt at explaining and defending pantheism from a philosophical perspective is Spinoza's Ethic …

philosophical Taoism is one of the best articulated and thoroughly pantheistic positions there is …".

So that I can discuss how such religion fits together withscience, here is an outline of how I see science, taken from comments(by NC and B. and Count Iblis and me) on the Cosmic Varianceblog:

NC said: "… the idea that genes drive evolution … isstopping off at an arbitrary point in the long chain of causality.The only scientific thing … to do, … searching for ultimatecauses, is to not stop at genes but go on a step and tell us abouthow 'selfish background radiation' drives evolution …".

I said: "... Once background radiation is brought into play, froma pantheistic view, you get to Dave Rothstein's possibility of "Godintervening every time a [quantum event] measurement occurs"....".

B. said: "… Instead of asking where the universe comes from,ask where the natural numbers 'come from'. ... Is maths thefoundation for the theory of everything? …".

Count Iblis said: "… That's a good question and that has leadsome people to postulate that reality is purely mathematical innature. … You can define them [the natural numbers]recursively:

B. said: "… in the end you'll sit in this field of complexnumbers, and every one of them is just a point in a plane. Does Chave a cause? …".

I said: "... If you want to continue the process, you might notethat

So, my picture of science is very much like my physics model basedon real Clifford algebras, which can be described (due toperiodicity-8) in terms of the 2^8 = 256-dimensional Clifford algebraCl(8).


Given that picture of science, here are a few comments (by nomeans a complete listing or discussion) about how I see thatScience fits with Human Religions:

1 - IFA: Since humans seem to have come out of Africa, thefirst Religion I will mention is IFA, also known as VoDou. Westernviews of IFA often emphasize Stage 1 - Fear Religion aspects (castingspells etc), but the IFA divination system has an important Stage 3 -Cosmic Religion aspect: It is based on a 2^8 = 256 element structurethat leads us to the 2^8 = 256-dimensional Clifford algebraCl(8).

2- Rig Veda: According to The Constitution of the Universeby Maharishi Mahesh Yogi "... The knowledge of the total Ved ... iscontained in the first sukt of the Rik Ved ... the eight syllables ofthe first pad ... provide... a further commentary on ... the firstsyllable of Rik Ved, 'AK'. These eight syllables correspond to the... eight fundamental qualities of intelligence ... The first line,or 'richa', of the first sukt, comprising 24 syllables, provides afurther commentary on the first pad (phrase of eight syllables) ...The subsequent eight lines complete the remainder of the first sukt... These eight lines consist of 24 padas (phrases), comprising 8x24= 192 syllables. ... these 192 syllables of ther first sukt (stanza)get elaborated in the 192[?or is it 191?] suktas thatcomprise the first mandal (circular cyclical eternal structure) ofthe Rik Ved, which in turn gives rise to the rest of the Ved and theentire Vedic literature. ...".

Since the first richa of the first sukt has 24 syllables plus 24gaps (if you include a silent gap at the beginning/end to close thefirst sukt into a circle) and those 24 gaps are made relevant bybeing elaborated by the following 8 richas of the first sukt, whichhave 192 syllables, the total number of relevant entities in thefirst sukt is 24+24+192 = 240, which is the number of vertices of theroot vector polytope of the E8 Lie algebra. Since the E8 Lie algebrahas rank 8, it has dimension 240+8 = 248, and can be seen as 120-dimSpin(16) adjoint plus 128-dim Spin(8) half-spinors, where Spin(16) isthe bivector Lie algebra of the Cl(16) Clifford algebra, and Cl(16) =Cl(8) (x) Cl(8).

In my opinion, the Rig Veda may be the earliest reduction towriting of the original African-based orally transmitted early globalwisdom of IFA = VoDou, and, as the earliest, it may be the mostnearly complete written description of that wisdom.

3 - Shinto: The Japanese Religion named for the Spirit(Shin) of the Tao (to), whose divination system has 128 elements thatcall attention to the even half of the 2^8 = 256-dimensional Cliffordalgebra Cl(8).

4 - Taoism: The Chinese Religion whose I Ching divinationsystem has 64 elements that call attention to the 2^6 =64-dimensional Cl(6) subalgebra of Cl(8), and in turn call attentionto the Spin(2,4) Conformal Group that describes Gravity and the Higgsmechanism. The Clifford graded structure of Cl(6) is 1 + 6 + 15 + 20+ 15 + 6 + 1 based on a 6-dim vector space on which the ConformalGroup Spin(2,4) = SU(2,2) acts linearly. However, the Conformal Groupalso has a non-linear, but physically significant, action on a4-dimensional vector space corresponding to 4-dimensional physicalspacetime which is related to a grading 4 + 16 + 24 + 16 + 4 = 4 + 16+ (12+12) + 16 + 4 which in turn is based on theLattice I Ching structure of Billy Culver



5 - Judaism: As Stan Tenen has noted, the 613 Commandmentsgiven to Moses, beginning with the first Commandment given in Egyptand ending with the 613th Commandment given 50 days later at Sinai,are divided into 365 negative Commandments and 248 positiveCommandments. The 365 correspond to the central number in the 27x27Magic Square , which corresponds to the 27-dim Jordan algebra J3(O)and the 248 correspond to the 248-dimensional Lie algebra E8 and soto Cl(8) (x) Cl(8).

Urim v'Tumim is for communication from the Spirit Mind of G-d to Humanity:

6 - Stoicism: Marcus Aurelius (121-180 AD) said:



7 - Christianity: According to the StanfordEncyclopedia of Philosophy: "… Philosophical Taoism isthe most pantheistic, but Advaita Vedanta, certain forms of Buddhismand some mystical strands in monotheistic traditions are alsopantheistic. … Pantheism... is antithetical to any powerstructure; the kind, for example, found in the Catholic church. ...".Some "mystical strands" of pantheism in Christianity have beenexcluded from doctrine of some power-structure Christian churches.For example:

According to the CatholicEncyclopedia: "... RaymondLully... RAMON LULL ... "Doctor Illuminatus", philosopher,poet, and theologian, b. at Palma in Majorca, between 1232 and 1236;d. at Tunis, 29 June, 1315. Probably a courtier at the court of KingJames of Aragon until thirty years of age, he then became a hermitand afterwards a tertiary of the Order of St. Francis. ... hestrove to ... expound Christian theology in such a manner thatthe Saracens themselves could not fail to see the truth ... heinvented a mechanical contrivance, a logical machine, in which ...causing a wheel to revolve, the propositions would arrange themselvesin the affirmative or negative and thus prove themselves to be true.This device he called the Ars Generalis Ultima or the Ars Magna, andto the description and explanation of it he devoted his mostimportant works. Underlying this scheme was a theoretical philosophy,or rather a theosophy, for the essential element in Raymond's methodwas the identification of theology with philosophy. ... He held thatthere is no distinction between philosophy and theology, betweenreason and faith, so that even the highest mysteries may be proved bymeans of logical demonstration and the use of the Ars Magna. This ofcourse removed all distinction between natural and supernaturaltruth. ... The Church authorities, however, recognized the dangerousconsequences which follow from the breaking down of thedistinction between natural and supernatural truth. Consequently, inspite of his praiseworthy zeal and his crown of martyrdom, Raymondhas not been canonized. His rationalistic mysticism was formallycondemned by Gregory XI in 1376 ...".According toa1973 article, "Ten Men of the Church before 1500", by BobSander-Cederlof: "... Lull was himself a layman, was neverordained, and never became a monk. This certainly contrasted to thepriestcraft of Catholicism ...[ another ]... significantcontrast was Lull's desire to evangelize the Moslems rather than toconquer them by force. He abhorred the Crusades, and urged the churchto begin a crusade of love. ...". According toStephen Skinner's book "Terrestrial Astrology - Divination byGeomancy" (Routledge and Kegan Paul 1980): "... many of RamonLull's wheels ... look like geomantic wheels [LoPan]...

[ wheel A

is ]... divided into 16 chambers ... 120 more "chambers" wereformed by combining pairs ...

[Note that the 120 correspond to the adjoint part of E8, and to the 120 bivectors of Cl(16) which by real Clifford 8-periodicity is equal to Cl(8) (x) Cl(8).

Which of the 120 Spin(16) bivectors ( that act on the 16-dim vector space of Cl(16) ) act naturally on the 8-dim vector spaces ( that are subspaces of the Cl(16) vector space ) of each of the 2 copies of Cl(8), and which of them have actions that go beyond those subspaces ?

Since (N+N) /\ (N+N) = (N+N) ( (N+N) -1 ) / 2 = N ( N + (N-1) ) = N^2 + 2 x N/\N and for N = 8 we have 120 = 16 /\ 16 = 64 + 2 x 28 so that:

2 x 28 = 56 of the 120 Cl(16) bivectors act naturally on the 8-dim subspaces, and they correspond to two copies of the 28-dim Spin(8) Lie algebra, as shown by Lull's wheel X. ]


... Another circle ...

[ wheel S

]... shows the rational soul in the center represented by 4squares and has its circumference divided into 16 compartments...

[Note that 16 vertices of 4 squares correspond to the 16 vertices of a hypercube inside a 24-cell, and that the 16 of 4 squares times the 16 of the compartments gives the 256 elements of Cl(8).

Note also that here the 16-dim vector space of Cl(16) is decomposed into (4+4) + (4+4) so that we have Cl(16) = Spin(4+4) (x) Spin(4+4) and this decomposition is relevant to dimensional reduction of 8-dim spacetime by introducing a preferred 4-dim quaternionic subspace spacetime into 8-dim octonionic spacetime, so that Lull's wheel S is relevant to see how the 28 generators of Spin(8) decompose when 8-dim spacetime freezes out into 4-dim physical spacetime plus 4-dim internal symmetry space.

The 4x4 = 16 vertices of the 4 squares represent 16 of the 28 Spin(8) bivector gauge boson generators. They correspond to the 4x4 = 16-dim Lie algebra U(4) = U(1) x SU(4) that is represented using the exterior algebra /\(4) with graded structure 1 + 4 + 6 + 4 + 1

The even subalgebra with graded structure 1 + 6 + 1 = 1 + 3 + 3 + 1 = 8-dimensions gives the 8 gluon generators of SU(3) of color force. It accounts for 2 of the 4 squares.

The other 2 squares correspond to the odd part of U(4) with graded structure 4 + 4 where the two 4 are Hodge duals of each other and are the two fundamental representations of 4x4 = 16-dimensional U(4). Since Hodge duality connects physical spacetime to momentum space, the first 4 is the only one that acts as gauge generator in physical spacetime ( the other 4 acting in the dual momentum space ), and it corresponds to 4-dimensional U(2) = U(1) x SU(2). The U(1) represents the electromagnetic photon and the SU(2) represents the 3 weak bosons.

The dual 4 ( the fourth 4 of the squares ) describes the U(2) action in momentum space, and does not represent any further force gauge generators, so Lull's wheel S gives 12 of the 28 Spin(8) generators as the SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) of the Standard Model. ]


... A third circle ...

[ wheel T

]... enclosed 5 triangles in a circumference of 15compartments ....

[ To find out how the remaining 28 - 12 = 16 generators of Spin(8) work, consider that they correspond to 16-dimensional U(2,2) = U(1) x SU(2,2).

Use the U(1) to describe propagator phase, and look at the remaining 15 generators, which correpsond to SU(2,2) = Spin(2,4), the Conformal Lie algebra that gives the Higgs mechanism plus Gravity by a generalized MacDowell-Mansouri mechanism and the U(1) gives propagator phase.

Thus, through wheel S and wheel T, Lull shows how the Standard Model (including Higgs) and Gravity work after dimensional reduction of octonionic 8-dim spacetime to quaternionic 4-dim physical spacetime plus 4-dim internal symmetry space.

Note that the 5 triangles correspond to the pentagonal vertex figure of the icosahedron, which is related by Fuller tensegrity transformation

to the cuboctahedron which is the root vector polytope of Spin(2,4), the bivector algebra of the Cl(6) subalgebra of Cl(8), whose 15 dimensions correspond to the 15 compartments. ]


... a fourth circle ...

[ wheel V

]... divided 14 compartments of its circumference between 7virtues and 7 vices respectively rendered in blue and red ...".

[Here I have colored the wheel with black and red instead of blue and red. Compare the Heptagon of Imaginary Octonions:

Note that the 14 compartments correspond to the 14 dimensions of the G2 Lie group of the automorphisms of the Octonions, and that the two 7s correspond to the two S7 7-spheres that, combined with G2, make up the 28-dimensional Lie group Spin(8) of the bivectors of Cl(8).

Note also that Lull shows 42 lines of pairs, made up of 2 sets of 21 = dim Spin(7), where one Spin(7) has the standard emebedding in Spin(8) due to S7 = Spin(8) / Spin(7) and the other Spin(7) has the Clifford embedding in Spin(8) due to S7 = Spin(7) / G2.

There are 2 Clifford embeddings of Spin(7) in Spin(8), corresponding to + and - half-spinors of Spin(8) as to which Lull's wheel X is relevant, and all 3 embeddings (1 standard and 2 Clifford ) are related by triality. See the book "Clifford Algebras and the Classical Groups (Cambridge 1995) by Ian Porteous. ]

The above images of wheels A, S, T, and V are from MartinGardner's paper "The Ars Magna of Ramon Lull(reprinted in his book "Science: Good, Bad and Bogus(Prometheus Books 1989)) in which he says: ".. Lull's figureX

employs 8 pairs of traditionally opposed terms ... arranged inalternate blue and green compartments ...

[Here I have colored the wheel with black and green instead of blue and green. Note that the 8+8 = 16 elements set out as two sets of 8 opposed pairs corresponds to the 8 +half spinors and their mirror image 8 -half spinors of Spin(8) and Cl(8).

Note also that Lull shows 56 lines of pairs, made up of 2 sets of 28 = dim Spin(8), where one Spin(8) is the bivectors of Cl(8) which act on the Cl(8) vectors of 8-dim spacetime and the other Spin(8) is the Cl(8) Hodge dual of the bivectors, and acts in momentum space.]

Figures Y and Z are undivided circles signifying, respectively,truth and falsehood. ...

[Note that Y and Z correspond to Yin and Yang, and the basic binary duality used to construct Clifford algebras including but not limited to 2^8 = 16x16 = 256-dimensional Cl(8).]

Some of... Lull's ... works are brief, popular versions for lessintellectual readers ... For example, the categories of certain basicfigures are reduced from 16 to 9 ... These simpler ninefoldcircles

[Note that the 9 chambers combine by forming pairs to produce 36 more "chambers" corresponding to 36-dimensional adjoint representation of the Spin(9) Lie algebra, which when combined with its 8+8 = 16-dimensional representation of Spin(9), produces the 52-dimensional Lie algebra F4 whose Lie group is the automorphsim group of the 27-dimensional Jordan algebra J3(O). F4 can be regarded as a real version of the 78-dimensional Lie algebra E6.]

are the ones encountered in the writings of Bruno ... and ... inHegel's description of the Art ...

Fifty years after Lull's death ... Dominican inquisitors ...succeeded in having Lull condemned as a heretic by a papal bull,though later church officials decided that the bull had been aforgery. Lullist schools, supported chiefly by Franciscans,flourished .... mostly in Spain but also in other parts of Europe.... Bruno's first and last published works, as well as many inbetween, were devoted to ... the method, notably "The CompendiousBuilding and Completion of the Lullian Art". ...".


According to aTarot University ArkLetters article by ChristinePayne-Towler: "... In the late 1200's, RaymondLully perfected from this historical welter of worlds,correspondences, and entities an alphabetic synthesizing tool in theform of wheels within wheels.  ... Over time Lull adjusted hisinvention until he had winnowed it down to the fewest movable partsholding the maximum possible meanings. ... Marsha Schuchard quotesLull's scientific biographer F. D. Pring-Mill, who "...thus includesLull's ars combinatoria among the forerunners of modern symboliclogic and computer science, 'with its systematically exhaustiveconsideration of all possible combinations of the material, reducedto a symbolic coding.'" ... the Tarot quite likely represents thenext level of Lull's systematized combinatory style of thinking,only this time physically untethered from any formal organizingprinciple such as the wheels-within-wheels format that Lullpioneered. ...".

According to a"Magic and the Early Tarot" article by Robert O'Neill:"... The historical evidence overwhelmingly demonstrates that theTarot was designed in the 15th century in northern Italy. Thespecific symbols and the number of cards appear to have evolved,starting about 1420 or even earlier. ... it is clear that there aremany ties between the Tarot symbols and the magic of the 15thcentury. ... Lullism, etc. played anintegral role in the everyday lives of the Italian city states. ...But it is important to recognize that the magic was not secret orpagan, it was Christian, public, and for the most part quiteorthodox. ...".

Here is a 78-card Tarot Spread corresponding to E6 of my physicsmodel:

8s, 8w,8c, 8p,(neutrinos) and 0 and Qp(complexifications) are the E6 Cartan subalgebra elements.

The other 72 correspond to the 72 letters on the Urim v'Tumimbreastplate.

                                 Qp                             jp     9p                          jc           9c                       jw        Qc       9w                    js       21     Qw       9s                                  kp    20           Qs    10p                    kc 19        15       Kp 10c                    kw 18    10     14    Kc 10w                    ks 17  9           13 Kw 10s                    1s               16  8     6     12 Ks                 1c   2s    3s                7  3     5  11                 2c    3c4s          5s                2     4                  4c          5c   6s    7s                      1                        6c    7c      8s          1w                            1p           8c               2w    3w                      2p    3p            4w          5w                4p          5p               6w    7w                      6p    7p                  8w                            8p


8 - Sufism: Here are some correspondences between the SufiIdeas of Ibn Arabi and D4-D5-E6-E7-E8 VoDou Physics:

The One (ahadiyah)                           the empty set or Absolute Unity which needs no Names


Oneness (wahidiyah)                   binary separation into oppositesor Absolute possessing                          described by characteristics which are                all real Clifford Algebras the Divine Names                                   Cl(N)


thabita are archetypes              structures of Cl(8) = Cl(1,7) or fixed prototypes               that are fundamental components                                              of all Cl(8N)                                 Cl(8N) = Cl(1,7) x...(Ntensors)...x Cl(1,7)                                  The 256 elements of Cl(8) correspond                                               to the 256 Odu.                                        The structures of Cl(8) include                                      +/- half-spinor fermion particles                                                         and antiparticles                                            vector spacetime                                          bivector gauge bosons                                   The 256 elements of Cl(8) correspond                                               to the 256 Odu


mumkinat are possible things       possible configurations of archetypes                                      forming quantum possibilities                                      i.e., worlds of the Many-Worlds                                             and Bohmian beables   


qada is a decisive judgment        dechoherence of a quantum superpostion                                         of possibilities, i.e.,                                   choice of which World of the Many-Worlds                                            at an event, or                                    choice made by Bohm Guiding Potential


qadar is the outcome of qada        the World or State that is seen to                                   come into physical existence at an event


al-khalq al-jadid is the               the branching of the Worlds new world that is created at        of the Many-Worlds at each event the occurrence of every event 


himmah is the spirtual power      quantum consciousness resonant connection of an arif, or knower


taskhir bi-al-iradah is          Sarfatti post-Bohm Quantum Back-Reactionconstraining by will whereby a higher order constrains a lower, taskhir bi-al-hal is constraining by the state or situation in which a lower order constrains a higher, and both together form a cycle


wujudiyah is the cyclic ontology        Quantum Game of Many Fatesof Divine self-manifestations by new world creations


Ramon Lull and IbnArabi:

According to the book "Shards of Love" (Duke 1994)by Maria Rosa Menocal: "... "... Ibn 'Arabi and Ramon Llulllived ... from the end of the twelfth to the beginning of thefourteenth centuries. ...

the twelfth century ... provided ... a fertile base for ... theheterodox movements of kabbalists, Sufis, and varieties of Gnostics... all at the same time in roughly the same geographical area. ...However ... a variety of repressions and isolations among the groupsmeant a virtually complete retreat form the various pluralisms, andit was in this reversal of climate ... that first Ibn 'Arabi and thenRamon Llull did their work. ...

Ibn 'Arabi ... born in Murcia in 1165 ... die[d] inDamascus in 1240 ... has ... been considered ... a pantheist ...

The textual similarities of Ibn 'Arabi's poetry with the poetry ofthe Zen tradition are striking ... Ibn 'Arabi's ... song, the mostfamous ... of his poems ... in the famous "pantheistic" verses towardthe end ... the poet is suggesting ...

"... My heart can take on any form: a meadow for gazelles, a cloister for monks, For the idols, sacred ground, Ka'aba for the circling pilgrim, the tables of the Torah, the scrolls of the Qur'an. I profess the religion of love; wherever its caravan turns along the way, that is the belief, the faith I keep. Like bishr, Hind and her sister, love-mad Qays and the lost Layla, Mayya and her lover Ghaylan."    

... that the varieties of experience of Love are not differentfrom each other ...

Ramon Llull ...[ was in 1235 ]... born in Mallorca ...still largely populated by Muslims and Jews ...[ and]...[ according to one account ]... in 1316 ... wasstoned to death in Tunis for preaching not just conversion but aunion and re-union of opposites that no one could understand anymore....

Llull spent the decade after his conversion becoming ...proficient in Arabic ... and its philosphical traditions ... Heemerges from those ten years ... eas[ily] ...absorb[ing] and reflect[ing] ... vibrant heterodoxiesof both Islam and Judaism - the Sufis and the kabbalists ... ... andsets out preaching ... his ... Ars Magna, his magical book to end allbooks ...[ in which ]... he expresses his belief that allreality ... is a theophany ...

Ibn 'Arabi and Llull ... the Murcian and the Mallorcan ...believed that a reconciliation between their religions was possible... Love, to paraphrase Ibn 'Arabi, was their religion and theirtext. ...".

It seems to me that such connections between Religion andScience refute the contention that "religion is false".

In conclusion, I quote with agreement and approval from the 2007Edge commentary of Richard Dawkins

"… I [Richard Dawkins] am optimistic that the physicists of our species will complete Einstein's dream
[ Einstein described his final theory as being "… a theorem which at present can not be based upon anything more than upon a faith in the simplicity, i.e., intelligibility, of nature: there are no arbitrary constants … that is to say, nature is so constituted that it is possible logically to lay down such strongly determined laws that within these laws only rationally completely determined constants occur (not constants, therefore, whose numerical value could be changed without destroying the theory). …".( see Wilczek's article in the Winter 2002 edition of Daedalus. )]

and discover the final theory of everything before superior creatures, evolved on another world, make contact and tell us the answer.

I [Richard Dawkins] am optimistic that, although the theory of everything will bring fundamental physics to a convincing closure, the enterprise of physics itself will continue to flourish …"

and I remark that Dawkins's belief that Einstein's "cosmicreligious feeling" will lead somebody (a la Newton and Kepler) to"discover the final theory of everything" shows that Einstein'sreligion has a purpose (i.e., our universe is not pointless) andwill fulfill that purpose (i.e., religion is not merely compatiblewith science, but is a moving force for advancement ofscience).


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