According toachina-on-site web page:
"... "The Monkey King" ...
[image from achina-on-site web page]...
... is the mischievous protagonist from the ancient Chinese folktale, Journey to the West. He is born from stone and the novelfollows his adventures in search of the Sutra, the Buddhist holybook. ...".
According to aMonkey King web page:
"... The Monkey King ...
... was hatched from a magical egg on a mountain top, whichhad been weathered and fertilised by the elements over manycenturies. Made of stone and virtually indestructible (although hestill feels pain), he was crowned the Monkey King after he proved tobe the only monkey on the Mountain of Fruit and Flowers to dare gothrough the Water Curtain and set up a kingdom on Earth. ... He isimmortal, having gorged himself on the life-giving peaches of theJade Emperor's sacred garden. He is also extremely smart - helearned all the magic tricks in the world from a masterTaoist, so that he is now able to transform himself intoseventy-two differentimages such as a tree, a bird, a beast of prey or a bug as smallas a mosquito so as to sneak into an enemy's belly to fight himinside or out. He can employ clouds as vehicles allowing him totravel 180,000 miles in a single somersault. He uses a Wishing Staffhe got from the Dragon Kings of the Oceans as his favorite weapon -it can expand or shrink at its owner's command (he normally stores itin his earlobe). He can turns clumps of his hair into any object hedesires ...[and]... can see through most illusions ...
The combination of Monkey's Taoist skills, the Peaches ofImmortality, the Wine of Heaven, the food and the five bowls full ofthe Elixir of Long Life he consumed, had made him trulyindestructible. Even when Lao Tsu put him into his Crucible of theEight Trigrams and heated him with alchemic fire for 49 days, theonly effect it had was to make Monkey's eyes permanently red. Monkeyescaped and ... demanded the title "Great Sage - Equal of Heaven" -which he got (but with no salary to go with it) as it was decided theeasiest way to contain his mischief was to trick him into staying inHeaven ...
At this point the Buddha intervened. The Buddha made a wager withMonkey, betting him that he could not jump out of Buddha's hand.Should Monkey win, he demanded the Jade Emperor's job; should helose, then he would be banished to Earth for centuries to learn somehumility.
Monkey cloud-flew to the end of the universe, where he saw fivepink pillars, which he took to be the end of the world. On the middlepillar he wrote "The Great Sage Equal of Heaven reached this place",to prove beyond any doubt he had reached this spot ... he alsourinated at the base of the first pillar. Then he returned to facethe Buddha. To his shock, the Buddha informed him he had never leftBuddha's hand - and to prove it, showed Monkey the writing on hismiddle finger and the distinctive smell at the bottom of his smallestdigit. ... Buddha pushed him out of the Gate of Heaven, then Buddhachanged his five fingers into the five elements (metal, wood, water,fire and earth). They became the five-peaked mountain under whichMonkey was trapped, leaving only his head and hands exposed. After500 years he was granted a chance to redeem himself by accompanyingholy man Tripitaka on a journey to the West as his companion andguard. In order to keep him under control, a band of metal was put onhis head that Tripitaka could cause to tighten by muttering a chant -while this couldn't hurt the indestructible imp, it would cause himextreme pain. ...
The story of the Monkey King was recorded in the epic tale"Journey to the West" by Wu Ch'eng-en (1500?-1582), ascholar-official. It is one of the best known classical Chinesenovels, replete with Chinese fables, fairy tables, legends,superstitions, popular beliefs and monster stories. It was based on atrue story of a famous Chinese monk, Xuan Zang (602-664). Over thespace of many years he made his way on foot to what is today India,birthplace of Buddhism, where he sought the Sutra, the Buddhist holybook. On his return to China, known at that time as the Great Tang,he began to translate the sutras into Chinese, making a significantcontribution to the development of Buddhism in China. ...".
"... According to Henry Louis Gates, Jr. (head of Harvard'sAfrican American Studies program), the Signifying Monkeyis a trickster figure of Yoruba mythology (Esu-Elegbara inNigeria and Legaba among the Fon in Dahomey), who became Exu inBrazil, Echu-Elegua in Cuba, Papa
in the pantheon of the loa of Vaudou in Haiti, and Papa La Bas inthe loa of Hoodoo in the United States). ...".
According to aneleggua web page by Eric Davis:
"... the Yoruba deity Eshu-Elegbara (or Eshu for short), perhapsthe world's most sophisticated Trickster figure ... a very similarfigure, Legba, exists among the Fon in neighboring Benin ... He is... one of the orisha ... While heembodies many obvious trickster elements-- deceit, humor,lawlessness, sexuality--Eshu-Elegbara is also the god ofcommunication and spiritual language. He is the gatekeeperbetween the realms of man and gods, the tangled lines of force thatmake up the cosmic interface, and his sign is the crossroads. ...Eshu has a subtle and complex relationship with the Yoruba (and,subsequently, Fon) system of divination, Ifa.The process of the divination itself is eerily similar to that of theI Ching: The babalawo, or diviner, quickly passes sixteen palmnuts between his hands, and depending on how many are left, hedraws either a broken or solid line in powder. He ... draws twogroups of four lines each to create one of 256 possiblepatterns. ... In Haiti and Cuba, Legba is not the devil, but issyncretized with other saints, particularly St.Anthony, St. Lazarus (who is old and walks with a cane), and,sometimes St. Peter, the gate-keeper.Again, these correspondences are not fixed in stone, but seem tomutate as the context of the world changes. ... In his book CountZero , science fiction writer WilliamGibson put the orisha in the heart of cyberspace, hiscomputer-generated astral data plane, and it worked far better thanany hoary Egyptian deity or Irish fairy would have. Gibson, whotossed in those gods when he was bored with his book and happened toopen a National Geographic article on voodoo, told me in an interviewthat he felt "real lucky, because it seemed to me that the originalAfrican religious impulse really lends itself much more to a computerworld than anything in Western religion...It almost seems as thoughthose religions are dealing with artificial intelligence.". Gibsonalso pointed out how similar vévésare to printed circuits. ...".
is the monkey deity renowned for his courage, power and faithful,selfless service. The Life of Hanuman is related below in the form ofshort numbered and illustrated accounts of some of the most importantparts of his life. ... Some say Hanuman ... is the son of Anjana, anfemale Apsara who had been transformed into a monkey by a curse, andVayu, the wind god. It is also said that from his father Vayu Hanumanreceived the ability to fly. ... Hanuman ... caught sight of the Sunand thinking it was a fruit he leapt after it. The Sun took flightbut Hanuman chased him as far as Indra'sheaven. ... Indra ... agreed that Hanuman should become immortal.All the gods came together tobless young Hanuman in a cave. ... As a young monkey god, Hanuman wasquite naughty and abused his powers ... Ram and Sita were crownedKing and Queen of Ayodhya. Obviously Hanuman was present, remainedRam's favorite general ... When Rama offered him any boon that hecared to name, he asked to live for as long as men spoke of the deedsof Rama. ...".
According to aPageWise web page:
"... The Origin of Hanuman: ... The angel Punjikasthala was aninmate in the ashram of Sage Brihaspathi. ... She was disobeying him... The sage ... cursed her to become a female monkey and live onearth. ... The sage ... regretted his emotional action. ... He toldher:'My dear daughter, you don't worry now. With the blessings ofLord Siva and Parvathi, you will soon get a son who will be respectedby everyone. He will be full of virtues and will never face defeat.He will be the embodiment of knowledge, fearlessness, strength andreal devotion.' With tearful eyes she bid farewell to her father. Atthat time, the sage told in her ears 'Anjana , Anjana'. She knew thenthat her name has been changed to Anjana and that she would be knownhere after only in the new name. ...
Then Anjana reached the dense forests on the earth and wanderedaimlessly. She ... saw ripe mangos on the nearby tree. She collecteda few of them and started to eat. But she heard the followinganonymous words 'Anjana, don't eat anything before taking a bath andbefore worshipping Lord Siva and Parvathi. You should worship them inthe morning and evening with full devotion. They will bless you.' Shelooked all around but nobody was there. She thought that these wordswere from a god himself and did everything as was told. Later she atethe fruits and continued her aimless journey.
Then there was a storm. All the trees started swaying heavily. ...there was a huge demon, about to swallow her. The demon in hisfrightening voice said 'Don't worry, lovely girl. I am Sambasadan. Noone in all the three worlds is capable of facing me. If you willmarry me I will protect you.' Anjana could not bear her anguish. Shesimply cried. Sambasadan advanced to her, but she walked backward.Then she fled. The demon followed her. Anjana, even while running,was praying loudly to Siva and Parvathi. Sambasadan was about tocatch her, when suddenly she fell down. At that time she heard theloud cry of Sambasadan. She got up and looked at him. A highlypoisonous snake had bitten him and he had fallen unconscious. Thesnake told her 'Anjana, he is not dead - just unconscious only. Youmay escape now.' In a moment the snake had vanished.
Anjana ran fast and reached an Asram on the top of the hill. Thesaints who lived there consoled her and gave her food and water. Shetold them her story in detail. She knew from them that Sambasadan wasa dangerous demon and that he was a threat for them also. They hadrequested that Veerakesari, a monkey hero, kill the demon. If hesucceeded all of them would be saved. Anjana again prayed to Siva andParvathi and slept well during night in the safety of the Asram.
Next morning Veerakesari arrived there to protect the saint andtheir religious ceremonies. Anjana saw him and felt confident that hewould kill the demon. Then suddenly there was the thundering shout ofSambasadan. Veerakesari assured the saints and Anjana that no harmwould be done to them. The demon approached Anjana and pulled her tohis side. She cried loudly as the demon put her on his shoulders.Veerakesari obstructed him by sending several arrows at the demon.Anjana escaped when a terrific fight ensued between them.
The demon was badly injured. Then, using his magical powers, hetook the form of an elephant. It attacked the Asram and the saints.Anjana was hiding behind a huge tree. Veerakesari reduced his size,became a small monkey and jumped on the head of Sambasadan. Heresumed his original huge shape and attacked the elephant indifferent ways. Then the demon took back his original shape and threwVeerakesari far away. Luckily he was not injured. He got up and againattacked the demon, but he was getting weaker. Anjana observed theseand prayed to Siva and Parvathi for help in saving Veerakesari. Atthat time she heard an anonymous voice: 'Sambasadan can be killedonly with his own blood. Try that'. Anjana thought of several ways.She at last took some arrows and dipped them in the blood ofSambasadan, which had formed a pool there. She gave these arrowssecretly to Veerakesari. He used these arrows against the demon, andas was his fate the demon fell dead. The saints were immensely happyas the eternal problem of the demon had been solved once for all.They wanted to reward Veerakesari suitably. But, what would theyoffer? Finally they arrived at a decision.
The sage Panga called Anjana to his side and told her:'We havedecided to give you in marriage to Veerakesari, who has saved all ofus from the demon. Do you have any objection?' Anjana did not haveany objection. On the other hand she had wished for it. Theirmarriage took place on an auspicious day.
Time passed by. Anjana did not have a baby, and the couple wassad. But they continued their usual prayers to Siva and Parvathi.They observed fasting, prayed continuously and spent all the time indevotion of these gods. At last, the gods were pleased. One day Sivaand Parvathi came to Veerakesari's house in the shape of monkeys andstarted eating the special fruits kept for worshipping the gods.Veerakesari wished to drive away the monkeys, but Anjana did notagree. She knew that gods may come in any shape. She started praying.Veerakesari also joined her. In fact, the monkeys were Siva andParvathi, and they were pleased.
They took their real forms and told Anjana:'There is a solitarytree in the middle of forest. You go around that tree daily. As timepasses on, with the help of Vayudeva(a god of wind) you will get aripe mango. When Anjana eats it, she will get a beautiful baby, whowould be blessed by all gods and would be as fast as the wind'.
They reached the centre of the forest and found the mango tree.They did everything as advised by Siva and Parvathi, for six days. Onseventh day, while they were circling the tree praying, they heard ananonymous voice: 'Anjana , Veerakesari, the god is pleased with you.The blessed time has arrived. You may take this divine mangofruit.'
The fruit had by now come down to their level, without anyoneholding it. They were really afraid to take it. Again the anonymousvoice said: 'I am Vayudeva ( god of wind). The mango is in my hand.It is God's will that my power is also to be mixed with the power ofLord Siva. Therefore, the son that is going to be born for will youwill have courage, strength and devotion. When Veerakesari gives themango to Anjana the child will get his power also.'
Anjana ate the mango after praying to Siva and Parvathi. Shortlythereafter, Anjana became pregnant and a male child was born in duecourse. Thus was Hanuman, otherwise known as Anjaneya, born.
Hanuman remained a bachelor throughout his life. He wasadventurous, strong, wise, cunning, knowledgeable, a musician, highlyreligious, courageous, fearless and, over and above all, totallydevoted to his master Sri Rama. ...".
According to TheI Ching in the Shinto Thought of Tokugawa Japan.by Wai-mingNg:
"... Hayashi Razan (1583-1657) ... pointed out that both Shintoand the I Ching favored thenumber eight, because it reflected the mystery of thenumerology of the universe. ...
... Kumazawa Banzan (1619-1691) ... developed a culturalperspective that treated both the I Ching and the Three Regalia assymbols of the divine way of heaven andearth ... The most striking similarity between the I Ching andShinto, he believed, was that they both favored the number eight,which reflected the universality of the divine way of heaven andearth ...[Banzan said:]... "the Three Regalia and the threelines [of a trigram] of the I Ching are alike." ..."... TheChinese sage, Fu Hsi, was the first to draw the lines of ch'ien andk'un, which were later developed into the six lines, the eighttrigrams, and [eight times eight to produce] the sixty-fourhexagrams. Similarly, we [Japanese] used the number eight inwords, such as the Yatano [Mirror] and the Yasaka[Jade], because the divine way of heaven and earth is one,and it is naturally the same wonderful principle shared by both Japanand China. ..."
... Watarai Nobuyoshi (1615-1690) ... used the I Ching and theNihon shoki to explain every detail of the Age of the Gods. Forinstance, Izanagi and Izanami were represented by the hexagramsch'ien and k'un. He believed that these two books were equallyimportant, because they shared a similar idea of the way of heaven,earth, and human beings ...
... Kikkawa (Yoshikawa) Koretari (1616-1694) ... used the theoriesof t'ai-chi and yin-yang wu-hsing to construct his theological andontological views. He identified Kuni-no-tokotachi-no-mikoto, thefirst Shinto deity who appeared after the beginning of the universe,as t'ai-chi, and Izanagi and Izanami asthe gods of Yang and Yin. ...
... Hirata Atsutane (1776-1843) ... asserted ... "[Fu Hsi]was actually a god of our holy land, Omono-nushi-no-kami, who went toexploit that land [China] and cultivate the foolish people.In order to teach them the way of human relations, he went [toChina] for a short period, and acquired this Chinese name. ...our god, Omono-nushi-no-kami, also called Taiko-fukki-shi, granted[the Chinese] the Ho t'u and Loshu (Writings from the River Lo), and created the wonderfultrigrams ... Based on the images of oracle bones, he invented Chinesecharacters. ... " ... Atsutane alleged that the I Ching was modifiedby Shen Nung and Huang Ti (the Yellow Emperor), both of whom heclaimed were Japanese deities, and held that the modified I Chinglater became the Lien Shan and Kui Ts'ang. These two early forms ofthe I Ching were also transmitted orally and adopted by the Hsia andShang dynasties, respectively. Atsutane blamed King Wen, the founderof the Chou dynasty, for changing the order of the hexagrams and thenumber of yarrow stalks to justify the revolution that overthrew theShang regime. ... Atsutane rearranged the order of the hexagrams, andreduced the number of yarrow stalks from forty-nine to forty-five,believing that he had restored the ancient I Ching. ..." ...
... Ikuta Yorozu (1801 -1837), a faithful disciple of Atsutane's,believed ... the ancient I Ching ... was the work of a Japanese deitycalled Okuni-nushi-no-kami, who felt' pity for the Chinese when hesaw their stupidity. As a result, this kami went to China, and wrotethe I Ching to enlighten them: "... This happened fourthousand eight hundred and eighty-some years ago. ..." ...".
According to anaikiwest web page:
"... the symbolism of triangle, circle, and square
... illustrate[s] the principle of ichirei-shikon-sangen-hachiriki, "One-Spirit,Four-Souls, Three-Fundamentals, and Eight-Powers," a frameworkthat ... was present in every religious cosmology. ...
According to the book Ghost in the Shell2: Man-Machine Interface by Masamune Shirow (a pseudonym) (Dark HorseComics 2005):
"... Instability occurs every thousand years in the three trees ofthe Jizaiten space-time universe. ... Jizaiten ... is represented bythree "tree" or "forked" structures, called sansagi. There aresixty-four strata ofirrreversibly ordered elements that move in precise sequence aboutthe three trees, and one fullcycle of their movement is equivalent to the life of the universe....".
According to awikipedia web page on Japanesemythology: "... Japanese mythology... embraces
andBuddhist traditions ... In the beginning, when heaven and earthwere still chaotic, three and then two deities appeared inTakamanohara (high in heaven). They are called the Kotoamatukami(deities of distinguished heaven) and play very little part in mostmyths. They are neutral in the gender and are essential forces thatmove the world.
In addition, two and five pairs of deities ... called Kamiyonanayo(Seven generations of Kami) ... appeared on the earth.
The first two, Kuninotokotachinokami (The god that perpetuallyexists as a nation) and Toyokumononokami (The god of rich clouds andfields), like five deities before, are neutral.
The other five pairs are made from a pair of a male deity and afemale deity ... the last pair ...[were called]... Izanagiand Izanami ...
While standing on the bridge, Amenoukihashi (floating bridge ofheaven) between heaven and earth, the god Izanagi and the goddessIzanami, churned the sea with the spear decorated with jewels givenfrom Amatsukami, Amenonuhoko (heavenly spear) and from the saltdripping from the spear, Onogoro (selforming) island formeditself.
Even though there should be nothing on the island, they mated inthe Yahirodono (the room of eight footsteps?) around the poleAmenomihashira and bore many islands and deities. The first two,Hiruko (waterly child) and Awashima (island of bubbles) were badlymade as Izanami had called to Izanagi instead of Izanagi calling toIzanami ... They reversed this process on the call from Amatsukami,making sure it was the male god Izanagi who spoke first rather thanIzanami. This successful encounter brought about the ohoyashima, orthe eight great islands of the Japanese chain. ... They bore six moreislands and many deities.
Izanami was killed ... giving birth to the child Kagututi(incarnation of fire) or Ho-Masubi (causer of fire). In anger,Izanagi killed Kagututi. His death also created dozens of deities.... Izanagi ... created ... gods ... Amaterasu (incarnation of thesun) from his left eye, Tukuyomi (incarnation of the moon) from hisright eye, and Susanowo (incarnation of wind or storm) from his nose.Izanagi went on to divide the world between them with Amaterasuinheriting the heavens, Tsukiyomi taking control of the night andmoon and the storm god Susanowo owning the seas. ...
... Amaterasu, the powerful sun goddess of Japan, is the mostwell-known deity of Japanese mythology. Her feuding anduncontrollable brother Susano, however, is equally infamous ...Susano ... hurled a pony into Amatarasu's weaving hall causing thedeath of one of her attendants. Amaterasufled and hid into the cave called the Iwayado. As the incarnation ofthe sun disappeared into the cave, darkness covered the world. ... ittook the combined presence of the myriad of gods and the sensualdances of the dawn goddess Ama-No-Uzume to bring Amaterasu out of thecave and once again shine her light to the world. ...
.... Izanagi ... banished ... Susano ... to Yomi ... the shadowyland of the dead ...
... Ohonamuji (also known as Ohokuninushi) was a descendant ofSusanowo ... Although the Yamato tradition attributes the creation ofthe Japanese islands to Izanagi and Izanami, the Izumo traditionclaims Ohonamuji, along with a dwarf god called Sukunabiko, wouldcontribute or at least finish the creation of the islands of Japan....".
According to abuhhdamuseum web page about netsuke:"...
and is frequently depicted with the peach of longevity as in theChinese Taoist tradition. ...".
According to ajref web page: "... Kasuga TaishaShrine... built by the Fujiwara family in 768 ... is one of the mostimportant in Japan. In accordance with the Shinto need forpurification, the shrine is destroyed and rebuilt every 20 years,like the Great Shrine of Ise. Kasuga Taisha is situated in Nara Park,just east of Todai-ji. ... The Kasuga Matsuri or "Monkey Festival" isheld on 13 March ...".
According to aTerry Keith McCombs web page: "...Oh-Kuni-Nushi ... also Okuninushi no mikoto, Okuninushi no kami,Onamuchi no mikoto, Ookuninushi ...[has symbols]... Koto(Japanese harp), Bowl, Bow & Arrow, Sword ...[andrules]... Healing, Medicine, Sorcery, the Unseen World.Resourcefullness, Compassion ... The Human world we know is calledAshihara no Nakatsukuni and came about when Ohkuninushi shed a ray oflight on what had been an area of only darkness and chaos. He alsopioneered it placing lands ... and making it livable for animals,humans, and spirits. ... Susanno ... the powerful God of Storms... gave ... Ohkuninushi ... his magic Koto, bowl, sword, bow &arrow ...". Sussano had cut the sword from adragon: According to awikipedia web page on Japanese mythology:"... the dragon named Yamatano-oroti ... had eightheads and eight tails ... It ... wasslain by Susanowo ... A nearby river turned red with blood of thedragon. As Susanowo cut the dragon into pieces, he found an excellentsword from a tail of thedragon that his sword had been unable to cut. The swordwas ... named as Kusanagi (Grasscutter). ...".
For a time, Ohkuninushi ruledIzumo and Amateru ruled the rest of Japan, but,according to aHotsuma-Tsutae Book of Heaven (Chapter 10) webpage: "... the will of the LordAmateru ...[was that]... There can only be one ...Ohonamuchi resigned himself to leaving Izumo...[saying]... "My sons have departed, and so I will also.And in case, after I have gone, there should be any other who risesup in defiance, I present to you my Kusanagi halberd withwhich to smite them. With this shall you keep this land under yourrule." ...". The result was, according toaweb page about the Kami of Shinto:"... the visible world would be the domain of ...[the childrenof] ... Amaterasu ... and things hidden (Suku-na-biko'smedical knowledge, exorcism, and the occult) would be the province ofthe children of Susano ...[Ohonamuchi] ...".
According to aweb page by Carrie Ferber: "... TheShinto kami O-Kuni-Nushi-no-Kami is also called Onamochi orO-Mono-Nushi-No-Kami. ... O-Kuni-Nushi is known to be a god ofabundance, medicine, and good sorcery, and happy marriages....[In]... the legend of the white hare of Inaba ...
... The hare has been skinned by a group of vicious crocodiles,when he asks O-Kuni-Nushi's brothers for help and they tell him tobathe in the sea and to dry off in the wind. This causes severe painfor the Hare. Later, the hare meets O-Kuni-Nushi, who feels sorry forthe animal and tells him to bathe in fresh water and then to roll inthe pollen of sedges lying on the ground. After this the Inaba Hareis completely cured. In thanks he proclaims that the Princess Yamatois to go to O-Kuni-Nushi, not to his brothers. Hisbrothers are angry with this and kill O-Kuni-Nushi, which theysucceeded in doing, but his mother and the goddess Kami-Musubimanages to resurrect him ...".
According to aweb page by Russell Cooley: "...Ninigi no Mikoto ... was ... Grandchild of ... Amaterasu ... sent toearth by Amaterasu ...[to]... rule ... she bestowed on Ninigithe Imperial Regalia (consisting of the sacred Yatano Kagami, or Eight-HandedMirror, the curved Yasakani noMagatama Jewel, and the Sword Kusanagino Tsurugi).
This mirror had been the very one that the heavenly Kami had usedto entice Amaterasu out of her rock cave, thus restoring light to theworld. The Yasakani Jewel was among those that had hung on the sacredsakaki tree that the Kami had placed in front of the rock cave forthe same purpose. And the Sword Kusanagi was the one that Susano-Ohad retrieved from the tail of the Orochi dragon ...".
Motoko Kusanagi of Ghost inthe Shell is named for the Sword Kusanagi.
Each of the Yasakani no Magatama Jewel correspond to half of aYin-Yang Tai Chi
and 8 of them are on this Magatama Necklace (from Inuyasha anime )
with 8 + 40 = 48 total beads.
According toanEarth Language web page: "...Hotsuma-Tsutae ...[is]... an long epic about veryancient Japan written by syllabics ... Matsumoto Yoshinosuke ... gota facsimile ... part of Hotsuma at a secondhand book shop in Tokyo in1966, and ... published a book about the report in 1980 ... In92 ... Ibo Takao who had known this was cleaning theinside of Hie shrine ...[and]... found the original all 24volumes of Hotsuma in three very old wooden boxes of 'heaven','human' and 'earth'; there were Chinese translation together and allwere written by Waniko Yasutoshi in 1775. The Ibo family has very oldtradition in the west of Biwa Lake( the largest lake in Japan, notfar from Kyoto ), and the discoverer Takao was the head of the familyand knew that the writer was called Ibo Konosin too, his seventhgeneration ancestor. ...
... The following is my hypothesis getting hints from books andthe web sites above and other books which I have here.
There is a place called Awa-tsu( tsu means ancient port ) inthe west of the lake. In the bottom of the lake, there is a remain ofstone age people's lives. Awa means millet grains. The pre-ricepeople might plant Awa there, seasonably praying the heaven for rainto the earth where millet grew at the ridge of the mountain abovethere. The Hotsuma book has the song of A-WA first, as A = heaven andWa = earth. Maybe they thought that the result of tying of heaven andearth powers are the millet: A-Wa = awa. In the 6th century, theirspecially sacred place was Mt. Ushio ( the east ridge of Mt. Hieiwhere is now the Tendai Mikkyo Buddhism Enryaku-ji Temple; one mainplace of middle era Buddhism ), and a little later, they enshrinedthe Hie great shrine in the bottom; it became the origin of allSannow Shinto shrines in Japan. The shrine where Hotsuma wasdiscovered was a branch of it near there. The origin of Ibo's familywas the god of Mountain and the family has strongly related to Hieshrine and Mt. Hiei Buddhism society in the middle era ( by Mr.Takabatake's mail ). I found that there is a huge mound tomb named'Hiko-Ushio'( perhaps ancient meaning was great king. Hiko was addedfor male name ) too in the town where Mr. Ibo lives.
On the other hand ... there are many ancient Korean style tombswith horizontal hole chambers and Kasuga-yama group of tombs whichare recognized as Wani family's whose ancestor was told as thefounder of Han dynasty of Chinese. A history dictionary says thatthey immigrated to Japan and served for writing for imperial societysince around the 5th century. The family name Waniko sounds like Wani+ ko( child ). Waniko Yasutoshi wrote that his motivation of his jobof Hotsuma was in his grandfather, but his Ibo grandfather diedbefore his birth, and he used another family name: perhaps it was hismaternal grandfather. If my guess is right, Waniko Yasutoshi had tohave many materials of very old written traditions from both very oldfamilies. I guess the following three cases are possible for thebirth of Hotsuma symbols and the epic.
I think it needed a big reason to invent these rationalsymbols ... Also if it was much before 1), one who only knew alanguage couldn't have this rational idea, without any comparison. Sofor the reason, I imagine 2) or 3). ... The real remained thing ofHotsuma Tsutae was made by Yasutoshi in 1775, but the pieces of ideasand maybe the writing system also could be centuries older, andanyway many materials were compounded together by Yasutoshi ( he took30 years ), I think. In the Edo era, paper was completely recycled,so after renewed writings, perhaps old one must be recycled, and youcan't find older version; you can't prove which guess was true....".
According to aHotsuma-Tsutae web page: "... TheHotsuma-Tsutae is an epic poem of more than 10,000 lines written in"yamato-kotoba", an ancient form of Japanese. It tells the story ofthe "gods" who inhabited Japan in the Late Jomon, Yayoi, and EarlyKofun eras (spanning more than a thousand years from the 8th centuryBC to the 3rd century AD). Its authors are given as Kushimikatama,Minister of the Right in the reign of the Emperor Jimmu, andOhotataneko, who lived during the reign of the Emperor Keiko.Kushimikatama wrote the first two volumes (The Book of Heaven and TheBook of the Earth). Ohotataneko edited these and added the thirdvolume (The Book of Man). ... CONTENTS OF THE HOTSUMA-TSUTAE ...Awa-no-Uta The Awa-no-Uta is a song that starts with the letter "a"and ends with "wa", hence its name. It contains each character in the48-syllable script of ancient Japan (the "Hotsuma script"), andappears in the first chapter of the Book of Heaven. ... The Book ofHeaven (Chapters 1-16) ... The Book of the Earth (Chapters 17-28) ...The Book of Man (Chapters 29-40) ...".
According to aHotsuma-Tsutae web page about Awa-no-uta:"... Isanagi and Isanami, the 7th generation of rulers ...revived the productivity of agriculture ...[and]... set aboutstandardizing the national language, which had become polarized intobarely intelligible dialects. To do this, they employed a form ofsong called the Awa no Uta.
Singing in harmony to the accompaniment of musical instruments,Isanagi would intone the "upper" 24 sounds and Isanami the "lower"24. In this way, they tried to standardize the number of sounds inthe language and, along with their efforts to diffuse agriculture,this helped them bring the nation back to its feet. ...".
Note that the upper 24 plus lower 24 can represent the 48 rootvectors of the F4 Lie algebra, whichform in 4-dimensional space a 24-cell
and its dual
According to aHotsuma-Tsutae web page aboutFutomani: "... Toyoke, lord of thenorthern provinces ... drew up a chart using 51 phonetic symbols torepresent the 49 deities residing in the heavens.
This he presented to his daughter Isanami and her spouse Isanagi,8th in the line of divine rulers of Japan. Amateru, son of Isanagiand Isanami, had his nobles compose poems based on Toyoke's chart.From these, he selected 128, which were then set down as the FutomaniBook of Divination (the origin of Shinto divination rituals).
Note that the16+8 = 24cyan letters can represent the 24-cellroot vectors of the 28-dimensional D4 subalgebra of the F4 Liealgebra; the 8green letters can represent the vectorspace of D4; and the8+8 = 16red letters can represent the 16 fullspinors ( 8 +half-spinors and 8 -half-spinors) of D4.
The diagrams in the yellow center arenot Hotsuma letters, but are symbols of left-handedand right-handed spirals and a double spiral. If the doublespiral is counted twice, as representing Yin andYang of a Yin -Yang symbol ,then there are 4 elements, corresponding to the 4 Cartan subalgebraelements of the 48+4 = 52-dimensionalLie algebra F4.
Amateru's 128 poems correspond to two setsof the 64 hexagrams of the I Ching.
They also correspond to half of the 256 Oduof IFA, and to the 128-dimensional even subalgebra Cl(8)e ofthe 256-dimensional Cl(8)Clifford Algebra with graded structure
1 8 28 56 70 56 28 8 1The graded structure of even subalgebra Cl(8)e is 1 28 70 28 1which can be written in two dual 64-dimensional parts as 1 28 35 35 28 1
in which the first 28 corresponds to the 28-dimensional D4Spin(8) Lie algebra whose 24 root vectors correspond to 24 of the 48Hotsuma letters and to the vertices of a 24-cell
and in which the second 28 corresponds to themomentum space duals of the 28-dimensional D4 Spin(8) Lie algebrawhose 24 root vectors correspond to the other 24 of the 48 Hotsumaletters and to the vertices of a dual 24-cell
Note that the 128 contains two dual 24-cells whose 24+24 = 48vertices form the root vectors of the 48+4 = 52-dimensionalexceptional Lie algebra F4.
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