Some Interesting Times:

- Planck Energy - Expanding Instanton Universe begins | Life of a Pion
- SU(5) GUT and Monopoles
- Weak Force Phase Transition
- QCD Phase Transition and Hawkins Black Hole Dark Matter
- Nucleosynthesis
- Matter dominates Radiation - Atoms Form - Jeans Mass ranges from Clusters of Galaxies to Globular Clusters - redshift z = 1400
- Structure Formation
- Protons Decay

Table of Contents:

- Instanton Universe Creation
- Universe's Global Structure
- Matter and Radiation Creation
- Reheating
- Hot Ordinary Matter: Times of Tranistions
- Cold Black Holes and Layzer Structure Formation
- Mass Distribution in Galaxies
- COBE - Hubble Constant - Expanding Universe
- Magnetic Structure
- Big Bang Gravitational Radiation
- Proton Decay
- References

In Two World Systems Revisited: A Comparison of Plasma Cosmology and the Big Bang, by

In astro-ph/0003181,
Matravers and Tsagas say: "... **a cosmological magnetic field could
affect the expansion of the universe, through its interaction with
the spacetime geometry**. ... A fundamental and unique property of
magnetic fields is their vectorial nature, which couples the field to
the spacetime geometry via the Ricci identity ... . An additional,
also unique, characteristic is the tension (i.e. the negative
pressure) exerted along the field's lines of force. This means that
every small magnetic flux tube behaves like an infinitely elastic
rubber band ... . Intuitively, what the magneto-curvature coupling
does, is to inject these elastic properties of the field into space
itself. ... The tension of the field lines means that **the
magneto-curvature coupling tends to accelerate positively curved
regions and decelerate those with negative curvature.** ... the
coupling between magnetism and geometry implies that even weak fields
have a significant impact if the curvature contribution is strong.
...".

Battaner, Florido, and Jimenez-Vicente have considered that magnetic fields at or prior to recombination could be a source of structure formation. Acccording to Battaner, in astro-ph/9801276, Battaner and Florido, in astro-ph/9802009, and Battaner and Florido, in astro-ph/9911423, the distribution of superclusters in the Local Supercluster neighbourhood presents such a remarkable periodicity that some kind of network must fit the observed large scale structure. If the filaments of matter that are now observed building up the network are fossil relics of over-dense regions of magnetic field energy before Recombination, then the simplest network compatible with magnetic field constraints is made up of octahedra contacting at their vertexes. This suggests a set of superimposed egg-carton structures with the Octonionic structure of nested Onarhedral lattices.

Though very massive concentrations like that of Piscis-Cetus may deform the net, it is very clearly identifiable and observed regularities and periodicities are in agreement with and are explained by the 3D picture of this egg-carton network. Magnetic field inhomogeneities with typical lengths greater than the horizon along the radiation dominated era are able to explain this network. Therefore, very large-scale magnetic fields may have played a very important role in building up the present large-scale structure of the Universe.

In astro-ph/0106281, Magnetic Energy of the Intergalactic Medium from Galactic Black Holes, Kronberg, Dufton, Li, and Colgate say: "...We analyze here

( i ) a new, large sample of well imaged "giant" extragalactic radio sources that are found in rarified IGM environments ... We find that sources in the ...[( i )]... sample contain magnetic energies E_B = 10^60 to 10^61 ergs and could be viewed as important "calorimeters" of the minimum energy a black hole (BH) accretion disk system injects into the IGM. In contrast to the radiation energy released by BH accretion, most of the magnetic energy is "trapped" initially in a volume, up to [about] 10^73 cm^3 , around the host galaxy. But since these large, Mpc scale radio lobes are still overpressured after the AGN phase, their subsequent expansion and diffusion will magnetize a large fraction of the entire IGM. This suggests that the energy stored in intergalactic magnetic fields will have a major, as yet underestimated effect on the evolution of subsequently forming galaxies. ...... and ... ( ii ) at the other extreme, radio galaxies situated in the densest known IGM environments, within 150 kpc of rich cluster cores. ... Comparison with the second, cluster core-embedded [( ii )] sample shows that the minimum magnetic energy E_B can be a strongly variable fraction of the inferred accretion energy E_acc, and that it depends on the ambient IGM environment. Cluster embedded AGNs inject significant energy as PdV work on the thermal ICM gas, and their magnetic energy, even ignoring the contribution from stellar and starburst outflows, is sufficient to account for that recently found beyond the inner cores of galaxy clusters. We discuss the various energy loss processes as these magnetized CR clouds (lobes) undergo their enormous expansion into the IGM. ...

... The storing of large amounts of energy in magnetic fields is a unique way for AGNs to impact their surrounding medium. The AGN energy released via radiation loses its dynamic impact when the medium becomes optically thin. By contrast, the AGN energy released via magnetic fields can maintain its dynamical impact over the age of the Universe, because most of this energy is contained in a large volume around the galaxy. This fact may have important consequences for galaxy and structure evolution. From our estimated magnetic energies arising from radio galaxies in clusters, we argue that these AGNs can be solely responsible for the large magnetic energy and flux, i.e., the magnetization of the whole ICM, as revealed by recent radio and X-ray observations. The magnetic fields from these AGNs may also provide an important heating source for the whole ICM. We further suggest that the total magnetic energy from radio-loud QSOs/AGNs is energetically important, especially at the epoch of z = 2 to 3 when QSO activity peaks. Giant lobes from each "magnetic" AGN are usually highly over-pressured compared to the typical IGM, thus further expansion of these lobes (after the central AGN activity has ceased) is likely to provide the space-volume filling process that could magnetize the whole (or a significant fraction of the) IGM. ...

... We conclude that

the aggregate IGM magnetic energy derived purely from galacticblack holessince the first epoch of significant galaxy BH formation is sufficiently large that it will have an important influence on the process of both galaxy and visible structure formation on scales up to [about] 1Mpc. ...".

In hep-ph/0208152 Massimo Giovanni says:

"... In cosmology the possible existence of magnetic fields prior to decoupling can influence virtually all the moments in the thermodynamical history of the Universe. Big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), electroweak phase transition (EWPT), decoupling time are all influenced by the existence of magnetic fields at the corresponding epochs. ... The physical picture we have in mind is ... the following. Suppose that conformal invariance is broken at some stage in the evolution of the Universe, for instance thanks to the (effective) time variation of gauge couplings. Then, vacuum fluctuations will go outside the horizon and will be amplified. The amplified magnetic inhomogeneities will re-enter (crossing the horizon a second time) during different moments of the life of the Universe and, in particular, even before the BBN epoch. ... If the hypermagnetic flux lines have a trivial topology they can have an impact on the phase diagram of the electroweak phase transition ... If the topology of hypermagnetic fields is non trivial, hypermagnetic knots can be formed .... and, under specific conditions, the BAU can be generated ... A classical hypermagnetic background in the symmetric phase of the EW theory can produce interesting amounts of gravitational radiation in a frequency range between 10^(-4) Hz and the kHz. ... For the hypermagnetic background required in order to seed the BAU the amplitude of the obtained GW can be even six orders of magnitude larger than the inflationary predictions. ...... if hypermagnetic fields are present at the EW epoch, matter-antimatter fluctuations are likely to be produced at BBN. ... the success of BBN can be used in order to bound the magnetic energy density possibly present at the time of formation of light nuclei. ...

... Before decoupling photons, baryons and electrons form a unique fluid which possesses only monopole and dipole moments, but not quadrupole. ... Large scale magnetic fields present at the decoupling epoch can have various consequences. For instance they can induce fluctuations in the CMB ... they can distort the Planckian spectrum of CMB ... they can distort the acoustic peaks of CMB anisotropies ... and they can also depolarize CMB ...".

For many years, Anthony Peratt (see his book "Physics of the Plasma Universe", Springer-Verlag (1992)) has advocated electomagnetic processes as important in structure formation, as well as in formation of stars, where the problem of transfer of angular momentum to the planets and the problem of loss of magnetic fields in protostellar cloud condensation could both be explained by electromagnetic processes.

Kulsrud, Cen, Ostriker, and Ryu say: "... It is demonstrated that strong magnetic fields are produced from a zero initial magnetic field during the pregalactic era, when galaxies are first forming. Their development proceeds in three phases.

- In the first phase, weak magnetic fields are created by the Biermann battery mechanism, acting in shocked parts of the intergalactic medium where caustics form and intersect.
- In the second phase, these weak magnetic fields are amplified to strong magnetic fields by the Kolmogoroff turbulence endemic to gravitational structure formation of galaxies. During this second phase, the magnetic fields reach saturation with the turbulent power, but they are coherent only on the scale of the smallest eddy.
- In the third phase, the magnetic field strength increases to equipartition with the turbulent energy, and the coherence length of the magnetic fields increases to the scale of the largest turbulent eddy, comparable to the scale of the entire galaxy.

The resulting magnetic field represents a galactic magnetic field of primordial origin. ...".

**Physics in Ultra-strong Magnetic Fields** is described by
Robert C. Duncan in astro-ph/0002442:
"In magnetic fields stronger than Bq = m^2 c^3 / hbar e = 4.4 x 10^13
Gauss [where m is electron mass and e is electron charge], an
electron's Landau excitation energy exceeds its rest energy. I review
the physics of this strange regime and some of its implications for
the crusts and magnetospheres of neutron stars. In particular, I
describe how ultra-strong fields

- render the vacuum birefringent and capable of distorting and magnifying images (\magnetic lensing");
- change the self-energy of electrons: as B increases they are first slightly lighter than m, then slightly heavier;
- cause photons to rapidly split and merge with each other;
- distort atoms into long, thin cylinders and molecules into strong, polymer-like chains;
- enhance the pair density in thermal pair-photon gases;
- strongly suppress photon-electron scattering, and
- drive the vacuum itself unstable, at extremely large B. ...

... The largest field you are ever likely to encounter personally is [about] 10^4 G if you have an medical MRI scan. Fields > 10^9 G would be instantly lethal. ...".

Marc Kamionkowski and Andrew H. Jaffe, in astro-ph/0011329, say: "... Recent measurements of temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) indicate

- that the Universe is flat and
- that large-scale structure grew via gravitational infall from primordial adiabatic perturbations.

... Inflation predicts robustly the existence of a stochastic
background of cosmological gravitational waves with an amplitude
proportional to the square of the energy scale of inflation. **This
gravitational-wave background induces a unique signature in the
polarization of the CMB**.

If inflation took place at an energy scale much smaller than that of grand unification, then the signal will be too small to be detectable.

However, **if inflation had something to do with grand
unification or Planck-scale physics,then the signal is conceivably
detectable** in the optimistic case by the Planck satellite, or if
not, then by a dedicated post-Planck CMB polarization experiment.
...

Both density perturbations and gravitational waves will produce a
gradient component in the polarization. However, **only
gravitational waves will produce a curl component** ...

[except that] .... we should note that secondary (in the density-perturbation amplitude) effects such as weak gravitational lensing or re-scattering of CMB photons from reionized gas may lead to the production of a curl component in the CMB, even in the absence of gravitational waves. However, these secondary effects should be distinguishable from those of gravitational waves, as they produce a curl component primarily at angular scales much smaller than those at which the gravitational-wave signal should show up. ...

...The curl component thus provides a model-independent probe of the gravitational-wave background, and it is thus the CMB polarization component that we focus on here. ...".

In the January 2001 Scientific American, Robert R. Caldwell and Marc Kamionkowski say: "... The linear polarization of the CMB can be depicted with small line segments that show the orientation angle of the polarization in each region of the sky ... These line segments are sometimes arranged in rings or in radial patterns. The segments can also appear in rotating swirls that are either right- or left-handed&emdash;

that is, they seem to be turning clockwise or counterclockwise ... The "handedness" of these latter patterns is the clue to their origin. The mass inhomogeneities in the primordial plasma could not have produced such polarization patterns, because the dense and rarefied regions of plasma had no right- or left-handed orientation. In contrast, gravitational waves do have a handedness: they propagate with either a right- or left-handed screw motion. The polarization pattern produced by gravitational waves will look like a random superposition of many rotating swirls of various sizes. Researchers describe these patterns as having a curl, whereas the ringlike and radial patterns produced by mass inhomogeneities have no curl. Not even the most keen-eyed observer can look at a polarization diagram ... and tell by eye whether it contains any patterns with curls. But an extension of Fourier analysis ... can be used to divide a polarization pattern into its constituent curl and curl-free patterns. Thus, if cosmologists can measure the CMB polarization and determine what fraction came from curl patterns, they can calculate the amplitude of the ultralong-wavelength inflationary gravitational waves. Because the amplitude of the waves was determined by the energy of inflation, researchers will get a direct measurement of that energy scale. ... These waves would have stretched and squeezed the primordial plasma, inducing motions in the spherical surface that emitted the CMB radiation. These motions, in turn, would have caused redshifts and blueshifts in the radiation's temperature and polarized the CMB.The figure here

shows the effects of a gravitational wave traveling from pole to pole, with a wavelength that is one quarter the radius of the sphere. ... Inflationary gravitational waves would have left a distinctive imprint on the CMB.The diagram here [below] depicts the simulated temperature variations and polarization patterns that would result from the distortions shown in the ...[immediately above]... illustration... .

The red and blue spots represent colder and hotter regions of the CMB, and the small line segments indicate the orientation angle of the polarization in each region of the sky. ...".

In gr-qc/0104005, Giovanni Amelino-Camelia says:

"... With respect to space-time fluctuations, one of the conjectured features of quantum-gravity foam, the experiments that have the best sensitivity are the ones which were originally devised for searches of the classical-physics phenomenon of gravity waves. In experiments searching for classical gravity waves the presence of space-time fluctuations would introduce a source of noise ... Earlier studies of the noise induced by quantum properties of space-time have shown that certain simple pictures of fluctuations of space-time occuring genuinely at the Planck scale would lead to an observably large effect. ...Fluctuations genuinely at the Planck scale (the simple scheme I used to illustrate my point involves Planck-length fluctuations occurring at a rate of one per Planck time)can lead to an effect that, while being very small in absolute terms, is large enough for testing with modern interferometers. This originates from the fact thatrandom-walk fluctuations do not fully average out. They have zero mean (in this sense they do average out) but the associated standard deviation grows with the time of observation... A reasonable scale to characterize the time of observation in interferometry is provided by f^(-1) which, for f = 100 Hz, is much larger than the Planck time. [ (100 Hz)^(-1) / 10^(-44) s = 10^40 and therefore over a time of order (100 Hz)^(-1)the standard deviation can become much greater than the Planck length. ] ... various quantum-gravity scenarios have random-walk elements ... However, the random-walk case was here analyzed only as an example in which the classical space-time picture breaks down on distance scales of order Lp = 10^(-35) m, but the nature of this breaking is such that an interefometer working at a few hundred Hz is sensitive to a collective effect of a very large number of minute fluctuations. ... These opportunities are directly associated with the fact that interferometers are preparing to reach sensitivity at or below 10^(-44) Hz^(-1) over a relatively wide (combining LIGO/VIRGO and LISA) range of frequencies. It is quite amusing to notice that experimentalists have been preparing for these sensitivity levels in response to classical-physics thoretical studies showing that the strain noise power spectrum should be reduced at or below the level 10^(-44) Hz^(-1) in certain frequency windows in order to allow the discovery of classical gravity waves. It is a remarkable numerical accident that the result of these classical-physics studies, involving several length scales such as the distance between the Earth and potential sources of gravity waves, has pointed us toward a sensitivity level which I here observed to be also naturally described in terms of the intrinsically quantum scale Lp / c. ...".

Here is a

sent by e-mail to me from William C. McKee (wcmckee@flinthills.com). I have added comments, set apart by square brackets [], and some links to related topics:

"... I honestly have hardly any understanding as to exactly what a "pion" is. But I do note that it is apparently some messenger type of particle -- and that it can have a very high energy content -- in relativistic terms. But that is Special Relativity, everything is moving with fantastic velocities. But CAN EVER a pion have a vast energy content, and yet not be moving?

What if in a mind experiment we focused a set of laser beams from several directions onto a stationary pion? Couldn't we bump up greatly its internal energy (at least momentarily), without it having to move anywhere? I assumed that this is not a problem.

What would be a problem, is the description of this temporary particle. For example, the common pion is associated with something called a Compton length, which I have associated rightly or wrongly with the pion's diameter. I assign a radius "r" with (1/2) of the Compton length. That is

- r = (h/(m*c))/2.
- h = 6.63E-34 J*s,
- m = 2.49E-28 kg,
- c = 3.00E8 m/s.

Thus, the effective radius of the pion is 4.21E-15 meters.

I realize for those of you that use these terms every day, that what I have written, may seem totally absurd. Well, don't worry, it gets much, much more absurd. Basically, I am jumping first to the assumption that the Compton length is a constant no matter how much energy that we pump into the original "pion" particle. Yes, I know that I have not a leg to stand on here, that what I am saying is very likely totally absurd. But that is my assumption. Moreover, I'm not satisfied to assume this as an approximation.

I am going to carry this to the totally super extreme, to the unbelievable conditions of the Planck relations. For the record, these are conditions, that if they exist even at all in the universe, would be in the singularities of "Black Holes". Or, by my conjecture, the very first particle of existence, or the very last particle of existence, at the extreme ending of time itself.

I conjecture simply, that the very first, and the very last particle, was and will be, a pion, that has the internal density, of the Planck condition. But even with all this super extreme energy, I conjecture that the Compton length has not been altered, even in the very slightest degree. That is obviously quite an assumption. I shouldn't care to even bring it up, except that it proved to be very useful.

Before we go on, I should record for the record, the Planck conditions, as they are normally written. From dimensional analysis, and little else: The Planck length is given by the expression:

- Planck length = (G*h/c^3)^0.5 = 4.05E-35 meters
- Planck time = Planck length/ speed of light = 1.35E-43 seconds
- Planck mass = (h*c/G)^0.5 = 5.46E-8 kg
- Planck energy = (Planck mass)*c^2 = 4.91E9 Joules
- Planck temperature = (Planck energy)/k = 3.56E32 degree Kelvin
- Planck density = (Planck mass)/(Planck length)^3 = c^5/(G^2*h) = 8.24E95 kg/m^3

Again for the record

- c = 3.00E8 m/s
- h = 6.63E-34 J*s
- G = 6.67E-11 m^3*kg^-1*s^-2
- k =1.38E-23 J*K-1

Here is basically my assumption, that the mass and the surface area defined by the pion particle and its associated Compton radius, is a geometric constant -- at even the extremes of the Planck condition. There is really only one way that that could happen, with at least three dimensional thinking, that is.

That would be, if the pion, could be thought of as a refrigerator, zip lock plastic baggy -- that won't tear, even under the Planck conditions -- at least for some multiple of the Planck time.

What I assume is that the very thin walled plastic baggy, has material of the Planck density, as its substance. And that at least for a finite moment, that the plastic baggy can maintain its stability, while it is infilled with material of the Planck density -- from another universe. In the other universe, everything is of the Planck density, and there are no plastic baggies -- in that other universe.

That other universe, by our standards, is the Eternal Lake of Fire. Conditions there are such that even time is warped, on a very sub-microscopic scale. That place could very likely, easily rip the wings off of an Arch Angel. It IS indeed the very sea of Chaos, from which the material world was transformed into being from. A place composed of only photons, that are like in a molten liquid condition -- that foam and break by the evaporation of multitudes of Black Holes of the order of the Planck length.

But what of our folded up plastic baggies? It would seem that if you express all of the mass of pion in a plastic baggie of the pion's Compton radius, and that the baggie material is of the Planck density, that this surface area can be folded down into a tiny ball of radius 4.17E-42 m.

[ Comment: A pion-mass Nlack Hole has Schwarzchild radius R(s,pion) = 2 M G / c^2 = about 10^(-53) cm and density greater than Planck density. ]

Note that the Planck radius is much large, at a size of 4.05E-35 m. This scale of size is thought to be too small to be of any practical use for science. Perhaps so, except for this one use, that I have given it.

I will dub this extremely tiny particle, the "pion grain".

When pion grains, are allowed to enter our universe, they can unfold their geometry, and become fully inflated pions. That is just what happened at the very beginning (I contend). Somehow there was a tiny rip in space-time. And this pion grain swelled up, because it was no longer under tremendous gas pressure, and its geometry unfolded, making the first very little tiny bit of our universe's space. A rip in space time, might easily travel faster than light, rather as the two phases of a pair of scissors blades, move with great computed swiftness.

The pion's unfolding, and its infilling with pion grains, would be I guess, the very stuff of inflation model theory.

This pion grain filled, pion, would be very obviously unstable -- to the extreme. And as it ruptured, it would tend to form other pions, also filled with the pion grain gas, and at near to Planck temperatures and pressures. The Ideal gas law could possibly describe what is taking place. Also, the Planck temperature, coupled with the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, "sigma" = 5.67 E-8 W/(m^2*K^4), and any available surface area, would speak of an energy flow. dW/dt = sigma*(area)*T^4. Symbolically at least, the derivatives of the Einstein energy formula, with regard to time, would be a power relationship. We could say that power is also conserved.

What is of considerable interest to me, is that the pion grain filed pion, will by its very existence -- however so briefly, define what will ultimately become the extremes of our universe. I conjecture that this relationship is entirely exacting. I conjecture that we live inside of what amounts to a Huge Black Hole.

When you get enough accumulated singularium (pion grains) gathered ... to completely fill an unfolded pion ... then a universe might be created -- or, at the end, uncreated. The alpha and the omega condition. I can't but help the noticing though, that the pions fragmenting into other pions, is like the egg of living creatures -- subdividing into multitudes of smaller cells --

except that we are constructing pions that weigh less, from the heavier pions. And that is assuming that even pions can exist momentarily in the Big Bang.

So by this conjecture, we can know exactly how much mass is in the universe. It is simply the volume of the pion, times the Planck density:

M = [(4/3)*pi*4.21E-15^3]*(8.24E95) = 2.58E53 kg

[ Comment: Since there are 10^3 grams in a kilogram and 10^5 Planck masses in a gram and 10^19 hydrogen-atom masses in a Planck mass, you can say that M = 2.58 x 10^(53+3+5+19) = 2.58 x 10^80 hydrogen atoms, which is consistent with number of particles in our universe used by Dirac, Eddington, and others: 10^80. ]

The greatest extent of the universe, is its Black Hole, Schwarzchild radius = "R(s)"

[ Comment: A universe-mass Nlack Hole with Schwarzchild radius R(s,universe) = 2 M G / c^2 = about 10^28 cm has density far lower than Planck density. ]

Now having obtained this huge number, is there any way at all of checking it for validity?

Yes, I think so. The original Einstein dynamic equation can now be solved for "lambda" at the universe's extreme of expansion. At the extreme of expansion, the radial velocity of test particle "m", must essentially go to zero. It may still have energy of rotation about the universe, but by definition, no radial kinetic energy. We may write the following:

... If the sum of terms to the right, acting on a test particle "m", that is at the receding edge of the visible universe, at a distance "r", with certainly all mass contained within the ball defined by "r", if this sum is positive -- then the universe can in principle expand forever. ... For a closed universe, that I have a greater interest in, then Total Energy = zero. If we multiply both sides of the equation by the inverse of the test mass "m", we then obtain:

[0.5*H^2*r^2] is really our old friend (1/2)*v^2, which is taken from K.E. = (1/2)*m*v^2. ...[ If there is no kinetic energy, then we have: ]...

with r = 2*G*M/c^2 = 3.84E26 m

...

[ Comment: If the kinetic energy term K.E./m = (1/2) H^2 r^2 were zero throughout expansion, then lambda would vary as 1 / r^3. However, especially during inflation when expansion is very rapid, the kinetic energy K.E. may be very large, even so large as to allow particle creation. ]

...

What we should however recap, is that this all came out of some rather fantastic assumptions, about the nature of the pion particle, and the very first instant of the universe. The very moment of time = zero. It does seem to work. But it obviously could have fallen apart at a host of locations. It would seem to be something to ponder. Well, thank you for your time, I hope you enjoyed this very unusual tale of the life of a little pion particle. ...".

In the D4-D5-E6-E7-E8 VoDou Physics model,

according to Hawking and his students who have studied the physical consequences of creation of virtual pairs of Planck-energy Black Holes,

and

......