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Promising New Technologies:

| Muons | BlackHoles | Cold Fusion | AntiMatter|

| Gravity | Vacuum| BEC | Sonoluminescence |Water Structure |

| Atomic Clusters -EVOs | Cellsand Chips | Qi Field |DNA and Genetic Code |

| Quantum Computing andSuperluminal Information | Communication|

| NanoMachines and the SecondLaw | DARPA |

 The range of energies covered by present-day human theories of physics, such as the D4-D5-E6-E7 model, does not extend to the range of Planck energy physics. The next step beyond the LHC in exploring high energies may be a ___2x2 TeV Muon-Muon Collider.   Some potentially very useful phenomena may be:


BlackHoles. It might be possible to build a Planck-MassBlack Hole using a pionlaser, but about 10^20 pions would have to lase together to makea 10^19 GeV Planck-Mass Black Hole.

Ring Singularities ofKerr-Newman Black Holes might be used for SpaceTimetravel.

Further, RingSingularities may be related to ComptonRadius Vortex structure of physical particles such as Electrons,Neutrinos, Protons, and Pions.


ColdFusion is now being researched by LosAlamos and CETI, amongothers.

Since Muonic atoms catalyze fusion, and since electrons in crystallattices can have effective mass greaterthan their ordinary rest mass, perhaps crystal lattice structures cangive electrons enough effective mass that they can catalyze fusion atcold temperatures. Cold fusion phenomena seem to be related to theability of such metals as Palladium to absorb large volumes ofHydrogen. According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, "... at 80°C and one atmosphere, Palladium will absorb up to 900 times its ownvolume. The absorption causes both the electrical conductivity andmagnetic susceptibility to decrease. ... it expands and becomesharder, stronger, and less ductile in the process. A metallic oralloylike hydride is formed from which the hydrogen can be removed byincreased temperature and reduced pressure. ... hydrogen passesrapidly through the metal at high temperatures ..." When metals suchas Palladium, that can absorb large volumes of Hydrogen, are placedin water, phenomena related to Cold Fusion can occur.

Interesting phenomena, perhaps related to GravitoEMInduction Region Virtual Gravitons, may also occur when atoms, orClusters of Atoms, of metalssuch as Palladium are in aqueoussolution.

Perhaps electromagnetic phenomena inside metals such as Palladiumcould induce fusion, somewhat like theInertial Electrostatic Fusion of Philo Farnsworth described in theJune/July 1999 issue of The American Scientist, in which "... an"evacuated spherical electron tube" ... accelerates the particlesinto a central zone. The cloud of negative charge in turn attractspositively charged deuterium or tritium ions toward the center, wherethey collide at high velocity. Although only a few nuclei hit withenough energy to allow fusion, the ions that fail to combine thefirst time will continue to crisscross the central region under theinfluence of the inward-pointing electric field. This focusing effectgives the accelerated ions multiple opportunities to fuse withoutlosing significant energy during the failed collisions. ...RobertHirsch, a physicist Farnsworth hired in 1964, ... hoped todemonstrate the value of funding further work on inertialelectrostatic confinement fusion. So he mounted his prototype on astainless-steel dessert cart and wheeled the contraption into theconference room. "Just plugging it into the wall, I think I produced10^5 neutrons per second," Hirsch recalls. (His more carefullycontrolled trials in 1967 yielded more than 10^10 neutrons persecond, a benchmark that has yet to be beaten by the modern versionsof this device.) Yet the AEC proved unreceptive. ...".

The effective mass of electrons in crystal lattices is a complexphenomenon in which a moving electron can carry a heavy trail ofcrystal lattice distortions with it as it moves, as has been observedfor electrons moving in Perovskite lattices. The theory of ColosssalMagnetoResistance (CMR) in Perovskites has been described byMathur and Thomas in the New Scientist (2 May 1998, pp. 30-33) interms of electrons moving in a lattice whose unit cell is a centralatom such as Manganese (charge +3 or +4) surrounded by 6 octahedralatoms such as Oxygen (charge -2) and by 8 cubic atoms such asLanthanum (charge +3) or Calcium (charge +2). As the article states,"... The particles' movements and spins interact so strongly witheach other, and with the rest of the ions in the material, thateverything needs to be taken into account at once. The traditionalmathematical approximations ... don't work. ...".

Cold Fusion phenomena could be related to Materialswith Negative Permittivity.

According to a5 March 2002 article by David Whitehouse for the BBC:

"... According to Professor Richard Lahey, ... at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, ... as the bubbles in the acetone collapsed due to the ultrasound pulse, they produced miniscule amounts of energy. It is believed that the bubble collapse causes a momentary shock wave that creates high pressures, high temperatures and a flash of light, which scientists call sonoluminescence ... The research, to be published in Friday's issue of the journal Science, was done at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee and at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in New York (both US). The scientists fired sound waves through acetone, causing minute bubbles in the liquid to collapse at temperatures of millions of degrees to produce small flashes of light. It is within these collapsed bubbles, the researchers say, that the nuclei of atoms fuse, releasing energy in the same way that the Sun does. ... If science ever does find a way to build a practical nuclear fusion reactor on Earth, it would transform society as the "fuel" could be derived from water....".

According to a 29 March 2003 article by Bennett Daviss in theNew Scientist (pages36-43):

"...the US navy's Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center in San Diego released a two-volume report ... "Thermal and nuclear aspects of the Pd/D2O system: a decade of research at navy laboratories" ...[ here are web links to pdf files for volume 1, A Decade of Research at Navy Laboratories, February 2002, (3.5 Mb) and volume 2, Simulation of the Electrochemical Cell (ICARUS) Calorimetry, February 2002, (41.8 Mb) ]...

...[The report]... lays out the navy's evidence that cold fusion is real, a verifiable nuclear event that releases more energy than it consumes. ...

... September ... 1989 ... Miles ... set up two experiments .. using ...[a]... 6-millimeter thick ... palladium ... rod. After a week or so, both began to deliver a sustained yield of between 20 and 30 per cent more energy as heat than they consumed as electricity. The cells' range of error was 0.02 watts, or 1 per cent. The excess energy measured was as high as 0.52 watts. ... through ... July 1992, Miles ran eight separate experiments with the same cathodes ... Each consistently delivered between 5 and 30 per cent excess energy. He also performed two other tests, using regular water in place of deuterium oxide, but using the same design ... Those two experiments produced no excess heat. ...

... Melich began to dig deeper into the negative cold fusion results reported by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the UK Atomic Energy Authority labs at Harwell, and the California Institute of Technology. ...[at]... CalTech ...[he]... found a hostile reception and was denied access to lab notebooks and other key data. MIT officials told Melich that they had thrown away all the data and notebooks ...[at]... Harwell, Melich found that the researchers ... [f]aced with a looming publication deadline for Nature, "... stopped the experiments at about the time they were beginning to learn how to do them" ...

...[in]... the summer of 1994 ... Ashraft Imam, the NRL's metals wizard ... alloyed samples of pure palladium with boron proportioned at 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 per cent. ... eight out of nine tests yielded 30 to 40 per cent energy gain. ... the more boron, the more excess energy. ... the ninth ... sample ... unlike the others, which all had a flawless surface, ... had minute cracks ... A correlation between cracks and null results has been noted by many researchers, before and since. ...

... the researchers ... had also seen telltale evidence of nuclear reactions in the form of tritium ... the only way the chemist could account for the excess was to accept the idea that the cell had created tritium at the rate of 5,000 to 7,000 atoms per second ...

... and otherwise inexplicably large amounts of helium ... Miles ... found ...[no]... helium-3 ... But he did find helium-4 in samples of gas from his experiments: an average of 7.93 parts per billion, with the highest registering 9.7, in those that yielded excess energy, compare with a maximum of 4.9 ppb and an average of only 4.9 ppb in cells that showe no unusual heat ... Miles says ..."From the amount of helium-4 found in our samples, I could back-calculate the amount of excess energy the cells should be producing ... I found the measurements to be closely consistent." ...

... ONR ... executive director, Fred Saalfield, ... says ... "For close to two years, we tried to create one definitive experiment that ... you could reproduce in another ... lab ... We never could. What China Lake did, NRL couldn't reproduce. What NRL did, San Diego couldn't reproduce. ..." And so ... they decided to declare failure and move on. ...

... in 1997 Miles ... was reassigned to work as a clerk in the stock room. ... He escaped from the stock room in 1997 when Japan's New Hydrogen Energy Program - its euphemism for cold fusion research - invited him to spend six months as one of its visiting scientists. ... Of ... 11 experiments, 10 yielded anomalous energy. ... He has now been invited to China to continue his research. ...".


Cold Fusion phenomena could be related to Bose-Einstein-Condensates.

Could the Ark of the Covenant havecontained a Cold Fusion Energy Source?


Robert Forward, in his books FutureMagic (Avon 1988) and Indistinguishable From Magic (Baen 1995), andin his book with coauthor Joel Davis, Mirror Matter (Wiley 1988),studies the use of Antimatter production and storage, andMatter-Antimatter Annihilation, as fuel for spacetravel and other energy needs. The energy of annihilation of 1gram of anti-hydrogen by 1 gram of hydrogen is roughly 2 x 6 x 10^23x 1 GeV = 1.2 x 10^24 x 1.6 x 10^(-3) erg = 2 x 10^21 erg = 5 x 4 x10^20 erg = 50 kilotons of TNT (the Hiroshimabomb was about 15 kilotons of TNT).


Gravitomagneticand Gravitoelectric phenomena in Superconducting Materials,is studied by NingLi at the University of Alabama at Huntsville, whose work islisted in the ElectrograviticReferences of Robert Stirman and also described in TheQuantum Cavorite website of Pete Skeggs. Work by Podkletnov isdescribed in a SundayTelegraph Article by RobertMatthews and in an antigravityarticle in BusinessWeek Online. Peter Skeggs, whose experimentalresults did not detect an effect, maintains a website about such phenomena in which he describes hisOctober 1997 visit to NASA-Marshall. In their paper, Static Testfor A Gravitational Force Coupled to Type II YBCO Superconductors, Li,Noever, Koczor, and Brantley of NASA_Marshall and UAH conclude:"In any case, the maximum contribution to a change in gravity of astatic superconductor in a constant magnetic field was measured asless than 2 parts in 10^8 of the normal gravitationalacceleration."

Torr and Li (Foundations of Physics Letters 6 (1993) 371-383 andPhys. Rev. B 46 (1992) 5489-5495 and Phys. Rev. D 43 (1991) 457-459)show that in a Superconductor, an External Electromagnetic Fieldcan induce an Internal Gravitational Field, the magnitude ofwhich coupling of Gravity to Electromagnetism depends on the ratioMUg / MU of gravitomagnetic to magnetic permeabilities in theSuperconductor. In vacuum (denoted by subscript o),

MUgo = 4 pi G / c^2

so that MUgo = 7.4 x 10^(-27) coul^2/gram^2. However, in someSuperconductors, MUg may be much larger. As JackSarfatti has pointed out, in a Bose-EinsteinCondensate the speed of light may be very slow, thus greatlyincreasing the value of MUgo.

The work of Torr and Li may be useful in explaining Relationshipsbetween Angular Momentum and Magnetic Dipole Moments.

According to a 28September 2000 article by Jack Lucenti on "... In 1996... Koczor assembled ... researchers at Marshall Space Flight Center... together with scientists at the nearby University of Alabama atHuntsville ... to build ... a gravity-shielding ... device ... thepartnership fell apart last year [1999] with bad bloodbetween the two sides ... The university's Larry Smalley, a physicsprofessor, says NASA simply failed to assemble a competent team ofscientists who could give the project a serious chance. ... Smalleysaid he remains skeptical that Koczor and NASA have the know-how todo anything meaningful with the project. The main universityprofessor involved with the project, Ning Li, has since leftthe school. She is said to have moved to China. ...... NASAawarded a $600,000 contract last year [1999] toSuperconductive Components Inc. in Columbus, Ohio ... SuperconductiveComponents is in communication with Podkletnov as they attempt tobuild it, Koczor said. ... J.R. Gaines, vice president ofSuperconductive Components, .... said ... "The superconductor isbuilt. The rest has been designed and fabrication is proceeding ..."...".

Torsion might be part of a linkbetween Gravity and Electromagnetism that could be useful inGravitational Engineering.

Another useful thing for Gravitational Engineering might be theConformal Structure of the HiggsMechanism and Gravitation.In terms of the smallest charged ElementaryParticle, the First-Generation Fermion Electron ComptonRadius Vortex Particle, theHiggs VEV is about 250 GeV = 5 x 10^5 Me (Electron Masses). Ifthe Higgs VEV gives the linearcompressibility of the Aether, the GravitationalVEV should be given by the 4-volume compressibility of theAether, so that the Gravitational VEV is about ( 5 x 10^5 )^4 Me = 6x 10^22 Me = 3 x 10^22 MeV = 3 x 10^19 GeV. Since theGravitational VEV should correspond to a pair of Planck Mass BlackHoles, the Planck Massis about 1.5 x 10^19 GeV.

Physical Wavelets, based onConformal Structure, might beuseful with respect to GraviPhotonphysics.


NASA-Lewis has a programon Breakthrough Propulsion Physics. Robert Forward, in his booksFuture Magic (Avon 1988) and Indistinguishable From Magic (Baen1995), says: "... If you take a mass and the gravity field thatsurrounds it, and move the mass very rapidly, you can create a newfield, the gravitational equivalent of magnetism. ... If you can thencause that field to change, you can create a stronger gavity fieldthan you started with. ... that stronger gravity field can be made toappear at a place where there is no mass, and can be eitherattractive or repulsive. ... there are a number of ways that such agravity machine can be made. One idea is to roll up some hollow pipeto form a long coil ... then bend the long coil ... to form a curlyclosed ring. ...

... the pipes are filled with massive fluid and the fluid is movedback and forth in the pipes rapidly ... the machine has to be as bigas the distance over which you want the gravity effects to operate.The liquid has to be as dense or denser than white-dwarf-starmaterial, and the speed of the flow has to be so high that theultradense liquid will approach the speed of light in a fewmilliseconds. ...". Forward's ring may be a mass-gravity version of aGraviPhoton 2-Torus RingShip.

White-dwarf star material is described by Kaufmann (Universe, 4thed., Freeman 1994) as being made of ions that "... arrange themselvesin orderly rows, like an immense crystal lattice. ... The degenerateelectrons move around freely in this crystal ... a cool carbon-oxygenwhite dwarf resembles an immense spherical diamond! ...".

If the crystal structure were engineered so that the electrons notonly got effective mass from interactionswith the crystal lattice but also effectively carried that mass (andtheir electric charge) as superconductors of both mass and charge,then you might have an effectively dense mass moving at highvelocity.

If the material were in the form of a Bose-EinsteinCondensate, then the speed of light might be low, and, assuggested by JackSarfatti, factors of powers of v/c might no longer suppressGravitational Engineering phenomena.

Such a structure might be useful in constructing a spacecraftthat surfs on gravimagnetic and electromagnetic lines of force thatexist on Earth and in Space,or moves through space by the Alcubierremechanism (Classic and Quantum Gravity 11 (1994) L73) in whichyou "... create a localdistortion of spacetime that will produce an expansion behind thespaceship, and an opposite contraction ahead of it. In this way,the spaceship will be pushed away from the earth and pulled towards adistant star by spacetime itself. ..." Since the spacetime around thespaceship is not distorted, the spaceship and its contents feel noG-forces from acceleration.

Chris Van Den Broeck has shown that anAlcubierre drive may have reasonable energy requirements and thatwarp bubbles are notimpossible. As of 16 Sep 99, he states: "... Class. Quantum Grav.has just sent me the referee reports for my warp drive paper. ... onereferee pointed out ... that I forgot an important factor in thevolume element, so that the very small values I obtained for thetotal energy are not correct. In reality, the energy will be of theorder of a solar mass,i.e. in the mass bracket of a large traversablewormhole. This is still 32 orders of magnitude better than whatFord &Pfenning found for a standard warp bubble, but of course it isnot as spectacular as my earlier claim. Two consolations are: (a)that the dimensions of the external warp bubble can now be raised tosomething the size of a proton without affecting the order ofmagnitude of the total energy, and (b) that the energy is more orless velocity-independent, except for velocities exceeding c by manyorders of magnitude. ... also ... I found a flaw in the derivation inHiscock's first warpdrive paper. Hiscock tried to prove that natural vacuumfluctuations on a warp drive background would diverge on some surfaceas soon as the velocity exceeded c. This could potentially havekilled the warp drive idea. However, I found that Hiscock used thewrong vacuum state for his derivation. The divergence doesn't exist....". I think that perhaps the results of Chris Van Den Broeck mightbe improved by using ConformalGraviPhotons. to make a warp drive. Such a ConformalWarp Drive would NOT use exactly the same physics mechanism asthat proposed by Alcubierre. In fact, my proposal is NOT equivalentto the mechanism used by Alcubierre. Among the differences, I do nothave to build a bubble around the spaceship, while Alcubierre doeshave to do that.)


Could a graviton beam be constructed to produce an Alcubierredrive? Paul Hill (in Unconventional Flying Objects, Hampton Roads1995) quotes D. D. Ivanenko and Yu. S. Vladimirov (in Matter andPhysical Fields - Part One of The Earth in the Universe, translated1968 in U.S. Department of Commerce Clearinghouse) as saying "... itmay be possible for electron-positron pairs to be transformed notonly into photons, but also into gravitons". If photon productioncould be suppressed (perhaps by annihilation in Casimireffect cavities that suppress photons of the matter-antimatterannihilation energy), then perhaps such a graviton beam could beconstructed. On the other hand, maybe what Ivanenko and Vladimirovhad in mind was more like using ConformalGraviPhotons, or longitudinalPhotons, to transform SpaceTime.

Sopuerta,Maartens, Ellis. and Lesame, in gr-qc/9809085, say "In a coldmatter universe, the linearized gravito-magnetic tensor fieldsatisfies a transverse condition (vanishing divergence) when it ispurely radiative. ... in the exact nonlinear theory, it is no longerpossible to maintain the transverse condition, since it leads to anon-terminating chain of integrability conditions. These conditionsare highly restrictive, and are likely to hold only in models withspecial symmetries, ... In models with realistic inhomogeneity, thegravito-magnetic field is necessarily non-transverse at second andhigher order."

Faraoni and Dumse,in gr-qc/9811052, say "... [photon beams] superposelinearly when they propagate parallely, while they interactnonlinearly, scatter and form singularities or Cauchy horizons ifthey are antiparallel. Parallel [photon beams] do interact,but a generalized gravitoelectric force is exactly cancelled by agravitomagnetic force. ... The gravitoelectric part of theacceleration is always attractive: it cancels the gravitomagneticpart when the beam and the null ray are parallel, and it doubles itwhen they are antiparallel. ... Given equal energy density in thebeams, the light-to-light attraction is twice the matter-to-lightattraction and four times the matter-to-matter attraction. ... Thepresent paper does not cover all the possible configurations oflight-to-light interaction; for example, one does not know how pulsesof light ... that have passed each other interact. ...".

Since the Higgs mechanism interacts withboth Gravity and the ElectroWeak U(1)xSU(2) Force, and with the ColorSU(3) Force through its Yukawa coupling, it is possible thatStrong Gravity in theInduction or Static Regions could couple Gravity to Electromagnetism,the Weak Force, and the Color Force much more strongly than the veryweak coupling in the Far Field Region. In a differenttheoretical context (that of large dimensions in SuperString theory),Lawrence Hall andChristopher Kolda in hep-ph/9904236 show that "... If spacetimecontains large compact extra dimensions [or, perhaps, ifStrong Gravity in the Induction or Static Regions couples Gravity toElectromagnetism], the fundamental mass scale of nature,LAMBDA, may be close to the weak scale, allowing gravitationalphysics to significantly modify electroweak symmetry breaking. ... AtRun II of the Tevatron collider, a signal for extra dimensions[or, perhaps, Strong Gravity] will be discovered ifLAMBDA is below 2.5 (1) TeV for a Higgs boson of mass 100 (300) GeV.Furthermore, such a signal would point to gravitational physics,rather than to new conventional gauge theories at LAMBDA. Thediscovery potential of the LHC depends sensitively on whether thegravitational amplitudes interfere constructively or destructivelywith the standard model amplitudes, and ranges from LAMBDA = 3 - 10(2 - 4) TeV for a light (heavy) Higgs boson. ...". They indicate thatthe general effect of coupling Gravity to Higgs and Photons is toenhance Higgs decay to two Photons, while the general effect ofcoupling Gravity to Higgs and Gluons is to enhance Higgs productionby Gluon-Gluon fusion, but also to diminish the branching ratio ofHiggs decay to two Photons.


Physics of the Vacuum,including Casimireffect phenomena. ( Click here toread about Cosmological Constant /\ > 0 phenomena. )

Robert Forward, in his books Future Magic (Avon 1988) andIndistinguishable From Magic (Baen 1995), says: "... The Casimirforce is a short range attraction between any two objects caused by... electromagnetic fluctuations in the vacuum. ... any two plates,whether conductor or dielectrics, would experience a fourth powerforce law ... also proportional to the dielectric constant of theplates. ... The equations are only valid down to a separationdistance proportional to the minimum wavelength at which the platesare still a good conductor or the dielectric constant is not unity.For distances closer than that ... attractive force will ... increase... at a rate proportional to the third power of the separationdistance. ... The closest separation distance ...[that has beenattained is 14 Angstroms]... (about five atoms) with two crossedcylinders of mica. ... the measured force between the two micacylinders was over ten tons per square meter! ... [To construct avacuum fluctuation battery, make] ... a wide flat spiral of foilbuilt along the lines of a Slinky toy. ... each turn of the spiralacts against the neighboring turns. The spiral configuration allowssubstantial compaction of the foil from large spacings to smallspacings while maintaining uniform spacing. ... [electric chargecould] create an electrostatic repulsion between the plates ...The Casimir force [could] draw the ... leaves together, doingwork against the repulsive electric field ...".

According to aSeptember 2002 article by Astrid Lambrecht in Physics World:

"... The fact that an attractive force exists between two conducting metal plates was first predicted in 1948 by Hendrik Casimir of Philips Research Laboratories in the Netherlands. At the time, however, Casimir was studying the properties of "colloidal solutions" ... that contain micron-sized particles in a liquid matrix. ... van der Waals forces ... did not properly explain the experimental measurements on colloids. ... Working with Dirk Polder, Casimir discovered that the interaction between two neutral molecules could be correctly described only if the fact that light travels at a finite speed was taken into account. Soon afterwards, Casimir noticed that this result could be interpreted in terms of vacuum fluctuations. He then asked himself what would happen if there were two mirrors - rather than two molecules - facing each other in a vacuum. It was this work that led to his famous prediction of an attractive force between reflecting plates.

.... In a free vacuum all of the frequencies are of equal importance. But inside a cavity, where the field is reflected back and forth between the mirrors, the situation is different. The field is amplified if integer multiples of half a wavelength can fit exactly inside the cavity. This wavelength corresponds to a "cavity resonance". At other wavelengths, in contrast, the field is suppressed. Vacuum fluctuations are suppressed or enhanced depending on whether their frequency corresponds to a cavity resonance or not. ... the vacuum field carries energy ...[and] also exert[s] pressure on surfaces, just as a flowing river pushes on a floodgate. This radiation pressure increases with the energy - and hence the frequency ... At a cavity-resonance frequency the radiation pressure inside the cavity is stronger than outside and the mirrors are therefore pushed apart. Out of resonance, in contrast, the radiation pressure inside the cavity is smaller than outside and the mirrors are drawn towards each other. It turns out that, on balance, the attractive components have a slightly stronger impact than the repulsive ones. For two perfect, plane, parallel mirrors the Casimir force is therefore attractive and the mirrors are pulled together. The force, F, is proportional to the cross-sectional area, A, of the mirrors and increases 16-fold every time the distance, d, between the mirrors is halved: F = A/d4. Apart from these geometrical quantities the force depends only on fundamental values - Planck's constant and the speed of light.

  • ... real mirrors do not reflect all frequencies perfectly. They reflect some frequencies well - or even nearly perfectly - while others are reflected badly. In addition, all mirrors become transparent at very high frequencies. When calculating the Casimir force the frequency-dependent reflection coefficients of the mirrors have to be taken into account ... It turns out that the measured Casimir force between real metallic mirrors that are 0.1 micron apart is only half the theoretical value predicted for perfect mirrors. ... simple solid-state models of the mirror match the real behaviour only above 0.5 microns.
  • ... Another problem with calculating the expected Casimir force for a real system is the fact that experiments are never carried out at absolute zero - as originally envisaged in Casimir's calculations - but at room temperature. This causes thermal - as well as vacuum - fluctuations to come into play. These thermal fluctuations can produce their own radiation pressure and create a bigger Casimir force than expected. For example, the Casimir force between two plane mirrors 7 microns apart is twice as large at room temperature than at absolute zero. Fortunately, thermal fluctuations at room temperature are only important at distances above 1 micron, below which the wavelength of the fluctuations is too big to fit inside the cavity.
  • ... A third and final problem in calculating the Casimir force is that real mirrors are not perfectly smooth. Most mirrors are made by coating a substrate with a thin metal film using the technique of "sputtering". However, this produces films with a roughness of about 50 nm. ... such roughness ... does affect measurements of the Casimir force, which is very sensitive to small changes in distance.

... While the Casimir force is too small to be observed for mirrors that are several metres apart, it can be measured if the mirrors are within microns of each other. For example, two mirrors with an area of 1 cm^2 separated by a distance of 1 micron [ roughly the scale of neurons in the human brain and Induction/Static Region Gravity ] have an attractive Casimir force of about 10^(-7) N - roughly the weight of a water droplet that is half a millimetre in diameter. Although this force might appear small, at distances below a micrometre the Casimir force becomes the strongest force between two neutral objects. Indeed at separations of 10 nm - about a hundred times the typical size of an atom [ roughly the scale of microtubules and tubulins in the human brain ] - the Casimir effect produces the equivalent of 1 atmosphere of pressure.

... Mohideen and his group in California have recently used surface deformations to show that two surfaces can also have a lateral Casimir force that acts in a parallel - rather than a perpendicular - direction to the surface of the mirrors. In the experiments they prepared specially corrugated mirrors the surfaces of which were sinusoidally curved. They then moved the mirrors parallel to one another so that a peak of one mirror passed successively over the peaks and troughs of the other mirror. The researchers found that the lateral Casimir force varied sinusoidally with the phase difference between the two corrugations. The size of the force was about ten times smaller than the ordinary Casimir force between two mirrors the same distance apart. The lateral force is also due to vacuum fluctuations.

... nanoscale structures and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) ... devices are fabricated on the micron and submicron scale ... Last year Federico Capasso and his group at Lucent Technologies showed how the ... Casimir ... force can be used to control the mechanical motion of a MEMS device (2001 Science 291 1941). The researchers suspended a polysilicon plate from a torsional rod - a twisting horizontal bar just a few microns in diameter ... When they brought a metallized sphere close up to the plate, the attractive Casimir force between the two objects made the plate rotate. They also studied the dynamical behaviour of the MEMS device by making the plate oscillate. The Casimir force reduced the rate of oscillation and led to nonlinear phenomena, such as hysteresis and bistability in the frequency response of the oscillator. According to the team, the system's behaviour agreed well with theoretical calculations. ...".

S. K. Lamoreaux, inquant-ph/9907076, describes experimental observations of theCasimir effect as of Casimir's 90th birthday in 1999. Lamoreaux says:"... For conducting parallel at plates separated by distance r, thisforce per unit area A has the magnitude: F(d) / A = pi^2 hbar c / 240d^4 = 0.013 ( 1 / d^4 ) dyn um^4 / cm^2 This relationship can bederived by considering the electromagnetic mode structure between thetwo plates, as compared to free space, and by assigning a zero-pointenergy of (1/2) hbar w each electromagnetic mode (photon). The changein total energy density between the plates, as compared to freespace, as a function of separation d, leads to the force ofattraction. The only fundamental constants that enter [theequation] .... are hbar and c; the electron charge e is absent,implying that the electromagnetic field is not coupling to matter.The role of c is to convert the electromagnetic mode wavelength to afrequency, while hbar converts the frequency to an energy. ... forsufficiently small separation, the force of attraction varies as 1 /d^3 ... the force in this range is sometimes referred to as theLondon-van der Waals attraction, while the 1 / d^4 range is referredto as the retarded van der Waals (Casimir) interaction. For theCasimir effect, the crossover distance between the regimes isd = 100 nm, much larger thanatomic spacings in the materials, so it still makes sense to describethe materials by their bulk properties (index of refraction); the 1 /d^3 vs. 1 / d^4 interaction is in this case due to the truncation ofthe mode frequencies that are affected by the changing plateseparation.... Since [Dr. Casimir's 80th birthday in 1989]... , two experiments havebeen performed, ... based on a torsionpendulum balance and on atomic forcemicroscopy (AFM). ...".

Ford and Svaiter, in quant-ph/0003129,say: "... The focusing of the vacuum modes of a quantized field by aparabolic mirror is investigated. We use a geometric opticsapproximation to calculate the energy density and mean squared fieldaverages for scalar and electromagnetic fields near the focus. Wefind that these quantities grow as an inverse power of the distanceto the focus. There is an attractive Casimir-Polder force on an atomwhich will draw it into the focus. Some estimates of the magnitude ofthe effects of this focusing indicate that it may be observable. ...The Casimir effect can be viewed as the reflection of vacuumfluctuations by mirrors. ... The presence of a reflecting boundaryalters the modes of a quantized field, and results in shifts in thevacuum expectation values of quantities quadratic in the field, suchas the energy density. Typically, Casimir effects for massless fieldsmay be estimated by dimensional analysis. If r is the distance to thenearest boundary, then the Casimir energy density is typically oforder r ^4 times a dimensionless constant. This constant is usuallyof order 10 ^(-3) in four-dimensional spacetime. It is of coursepossible to find a much smaller result due to special cancellations.... This leaves the possibility of exceptions, where the energydensity is much larger than would be expected on dimensional grounds....


Bordag, Mohideen, and Mostepanenko, in quant-ph/0106045,"... provide a review of both new experimental and theoreticaldevelopments in the Casimir effect. The Casimir effect resultsfrom the alteration by the boundaries of the zero-pointelectromagnetic energy. Unique to the Casimir force is its strongdependence on shape, switching from attractive to repulsive asfunction of the size, geometry and topology of the boundary. Thus theCasimir force is a direct manifestation of the boundary dependence ofquantum vacuum. .... The experiments on measuring the Casimir forceare also reviewed, starting first with the older measurements andfinishing with a detailed presentation of modern precisionexperiments. The latter are accurately compared with the theoreticalresults for real media. ... Currently the Casimir effect has beenadvanced as a new powerful test for hypothetical long-rangeinteractions, including corrections to Newtonian gravitational law atsmall distances ... It is also gaining in technological importance invital applications such as in nanoelectromechanical devices ... Thefirst paper anticipating the dominant role of Casimir forces innanoscale devices appeared over 15 years ago, but was largelyignored, as then the silicon chip fabrication dimensions were on theorder of many microns. More recently, given the shrinking devicedimensions to nanometers, the important role of Casimir forcespresent in nanoscale devices is now well recognized. The importantrole of the Casimir forces in both the device performance and devicefabrication have been acknowledged. Very recently, even an actuatorbased on the Casimir force has been fabricated usingsiliconnanofabrication technology ...".

According to AlternateView Column AV-43 written in 1990 by John G. Cramer:

"... K. Scharnhorst, Physics Letters B236, 354 (1990) ... has given a new twist to the Casimir effect by considering the velocity v of a photon travelling across the gap between the plates. If the plates are separated by a gap d, the Casimir effect suppresses all virtual photons with a wavelength of 2d or greater. Because these virtual photons are absent, they cannot participate in games of catch between virtual particles. Therefore a real photon travelling between the plates spends less time as an electron-positron pair because the QED vacuum fluctuations are suppressed. For this reason, the photon travels faster across the gap. Its speed of travel through normal vacuum is c, so its speed v in the negative energy vacuum between the plates is greater than c! ... in reasonable experimental situations, the Scharnhorst effect is not very big. In fact, it's abysmally small. With a plate gap of d, v/c = 1 - (1.6 x 10^(-60) x d^(-4) ). If we make d as small as experimentally possible, say 1 nanometer (= 1 x 10^(-9) m) or about ten atomic diameters, we find that (v-c) = 1.6 x 10^(-24) c. ... normal metals are made of atoms which become very lumpy and non-planar at the nanometer scale. So let's ... make a pair of Casimir plates from superconducting neutronium. ... Suppose that between two such plates we makes a gap on the order of nuclear dimensions, about a femtometer (10^(-15) m). If one takes Scharnhorst's equation for index of refraction at face value, c/v goes to zero and a photon travels at infinite speed when the gap between the plates is decreased to about 1.13 x 10^(-15) m, or about the diameter of a proton. Of course, the approximations used in the calculation may not be valid because of higher-order effects at such small distances. ...".

According to PhysicsNews Update Number 603 #2, September 9, 2002 by Phil Schewe, JamesRiordon, and Ben Stein:

"... certain highly curved (on a nanoscopic scale) surfaces modify the electromagnetic properties of physical vacuum in their vicinity. This changes the behavior of an atom near nanobodies (quantum dots, nanospheres, nanocylinders, etc.). Generally called the Purcell effect, the phenomenon happens because an excited electron inside the outside atom strongly senses the modified structure of physical vacuum near surfaces in its vicinity. New calculations performed by physicists at the Belarusian State University in Minsk show that due to unique conducting properties of carbon nanotubes the fluorescence rate of an excited atom or molecule in their vicinity should be enhanced by as much as million, a much greater effect than for other geometries studied. The Purcell effect has been observed in many of these other cases, and the Belarusian scientists (contact Prof. Sergei Maksimenko, hope to find collaborators to test their nanotube hypothesis. The hope is to exploit the enhanced spontaneous decay rate to control the behavior of nuclei, atoms, or organic molecules outside or inside nanotubes. (Bondarev et al., Physical Review Letters, 9 September 2002.) ...".


The Zero Point Fluctuationsof the Vacuum have been conjectured by Sakharov to be related toGravity.

Conformal GraviPhotons may berelated to the Casimir Vacuum.

Nanostructure Fabrication usedfor Negative Permittivity Materials might be useful in CasimirVacuum Enginnering.


Bose-Einstein Condensates, Diamonds,and Fermions:

A Bose Einstein Condensate,or BEC, "...consists of particles with such large de Broglie wavelengths thattheir wave functions overlap, generating a single quantum state thatis delocalized across the entire sample. Thus a condensate of atomsis analogous to the coherent field of photons generated inside alaser. ...".

According to a20 March 2002 article in"... scientists used lasers and magnetic fields to create a new formof matter ...

... Bose-Einstein condensates ... are quantum creatures big enoughto see. ... A BEC is a group of ... atoms that merge to make a singlematter-wave ...

... if you create two BECs and put them together, they don't mixlike an ordinary gas or bounce apart like two solids might. Where thetwo BECs overlap, they "interfere" like waves: thin, parallel layersof matter are separated by thin layers of empty space. ...

... Atom-laser pulses produced in Ketterle's lab ... at MIT...

... The curved shape of the pulses was caused by gravity [inthe image, down is to the right] and forces between the atoms....".


Self-Induced Transparency has been used with laser beamspassing through a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) of sodiumatoms to increase the Refractive Index andslow the Speed of Light to 17 meters/second in a Harvardexperiment reported by Lene Vestergaaard Hau et al (Nature,18 February 1999), according to AIPPhysics News Update 415 (18 Feb 99). They "... also observedunprecedentedly large intensity-dependent light transmission. Such anextreme nonlinear effect can perhaps be used in a number ofopto-electronic components (switches, memory, delay lines) and inconverting light from one wavelength to another.".

A Bose-Einstein Condensate with a low speed of light may have highgravito-magnetic permeability andtherefore be useful in gravitationalengineering.

According to a4 April 2003 article by Peter Rodgers in Physics World:

"... Johan Prins of the University of Pretoria ... in South Africa claims to have created a new superconducting state of matter at room temperature. ...[He]... observed the superconducting state in ... diamonds that had been doped with oxygen (Semiconductor Science and Technology 18 S131). Diamond [has tetrahedral structure and] is a semiconductor and Prins has long been interested in using n-type diamond as a "cold" cathode to replace the "hot" cathodes found in television tubes and many other devices. Moreover, he believes that the results of his experiments on n-type diamond surfaces - made by exposing the diamond to energetic oxygen ions - can only be explained by a new type of superconducting state. ... Prins argues that a thin "electron-charge" layer is formed in the vacuum just above the surface of the diamond, and that a depletion layer of positive charges forms in the diamond. This is similar, he says, to the Schottky diode that is generated between an n-type semiconductor and a metal. Prins then applies the equations that describe electron transport through a Schottky diode to his system. He finds that as more and more electrons are extracted from the diamond, the density of electrons in this layer reaches a critical value at which a Bose-Einstein-type condensate of electron pairs forms. Current continues to flow from the diamond cathode through this layer to the anode, even though there is no voltage across the layer - a sign of superconductivity. ... Prins admits that he must show that the state can expel magnetic fields to conclusively prove that the state is superconducting. ...".  

Although a Bose-Einstein Condensate is made of bosons, the bosonsmay in turn be composites (such as Cooper Pairs) of fermions. Theelement Helium provides examples:


According to a1995 Alternate View column published in 1996 by Analog, written byJohn Cramer: "... Wieman and Cornell were able to produce aBose-Einstein condensate of supercooled 87Rb (rubidium-87) atoms.Rubidium is an alkali metal from the first column of the periodictable, an atom that has a spin of 1/2 in its electron shell structureand is therefore not an obvious candidate for BEC production.However, when a gas of rubidium atoms is placed in a strongmagnetic field, all spins line up and adjacent atoms combine to formspin 1 molecules that behave as integer-spin bosons. ... Toproduce a BEC, a gas of weakly interacting bosonic molecules must becooled to an ultra-low temperature at which the deBroglie wavelengthof the molecules becomes larger than their mean spacing. The problemhas been reaching such a temperature. Since the deBroglie wavelengthis inversely proportional to the square root of the temperature andmolecule spacing grows with temperature, a BEC can only form at atemperature below 170 nano-Kelvin (or 1.7 x 10^(-7) K, 170 billionthsof a Celsius degree above absolute zero). ... Another aspect of theBEC is its small size. The size of a BEC of any number of atoms isthe same as the size of one atom in the same state. This means thatBEC has implications for producing ultra-compact matter. The BEC is acloset for storing atoms that is never full. In fact, the more atomsthat have been stored in the BEC, the stronger is the tendency formore atoms to join them, and the strength of this "pull" increases asthe factorial of the number of atoms in the condensate. The BEC is socompact and dense that, with sufficient atoms added, a mini-blackhole of atomic size should form. ... An isolated rubidium atom has anatomic radius of 3 x 10^(-10) meters, so a BEC of rubidium atomsshould be about the same size. The mass of rubidium needed to form ablack hole of this size would be 2 x 10^17 kilograms, about 20 timesthe mass of Mars' largest moon Phobos. The BEC of Wieman and Cornellcontained only a few thousand atoms of rubidium. ...".

According to aNews from NIST article: "... By making a Bose-Einstein condensatein a particular isotope -- rubidium-85 -- and then changing themagnetic field in which the BEC is sitting, researchers can adjustthe wavefunction's self-interaction between repulsion and attraction.... Making the self-interaction mildly repulsive causes thecondensate to swell up in a controlled manner, as predicted bytheory. However, when the magnetic field is adjusted to make theinteraction attractive ... The condensate first shrinks as expected,but rather than gradually clumping together in a mass, there isinstead a sudden explosion of atoms outward.

This "explosion," which actually corresponds to a tiny amount ofenergy by normal standards, continues for a few thousandths of asecond. Left behind is a small cold remnant condensate surrounded bythe expanding gas of the explosion. About half the original atoms inthe condensate seem to have vanished in that they are not seen ineither the remnant or the expanding gas cloud. ...".



Sonoluminescence does not occur in all liquids.  Water seems to be special for sonoluminescence.   The interaction of electric fields and water produces filaments within the water and quantum phenomena of superradiance and self-induced tranparency.  In pure water with gas bubbles, the filaments may radiate outwardly into the water from the spherical surface of a gas bubble.  As the bubble collapses, the filaments would be pushed closer together, and the Casimir effect described by Schwinger and Chodos could combine with superradiance and self-transparency to produce sonoluminescent radiation.  

In letter-length paper (quant-ph/9805023),Liberati, Visser, Belgiorno, and Sciama extend Schwinger's model forsonoluminescence by explicitly calculating the Bogolubov coefficientsrelating the QED vacuum states associated with the collapse of adielectric bubble. They explicitly show that sudden (non-adiabatic)collapse leads to the production of real photons with a spectrumproportional to phase space volume, and a high-frequency cutoff thatarises from the asymptotic behaviour of the dielectric constant, andthey argue that the Casimir energy model remains a viable candidatefor explaining sonoluminescence.

In their expanded paper (quant-ph/9805031),Liberati, Belgiorno, Visser, and Sciama emphasize the importance ofthe difference in refractive indices as a function of wavenumber,pressure, temperature, and noble gas admixture. Although the basicCasimir effect is a universal phenomenon of QED, specific andparticular experimental features can be encoded in the refractiveindex. The Casimir energy changes as the bubble collapses, but it isonly in the sudden approximation that converting all the change inCasimir energy to real photons can be justified. For the conversionof zero-point fluctuations to real photons to be relevant forsonoluminescence the sudden approximation must hold for photons allthe way out to the observed extreme ultraviolet cut-off (200nm;corresponding to a femtosecond timescale period of 0.66 x 10 ^(-15)sec) of sonoluminescent radiation. This implies that if conversion ofzero-point fluctuations to real photons is a significant part of thephysics of sonoluminescence then the refractive index must bechanging significantly on femtosecond timescales. Thus the changes inrefractive index cannot be just due to the motion of the bubble wall.The bubble wall is moving at most at Mach 4, for a 1 micrometerbubble this gives a collapse timescale of 10^(-10) seconds, about 100picoseconds. Therefore one should not be focussing on the actualcollapse of the bubble, but rather the way in which the refractiveindex changes as a function of space and time: as the bubblecollapses the gasses inside are compressed, and although therefractive index for air (plus noble gas contaminants) is 1 at STP itshould be no surprise to see the refractive index of the trapped gasundergoing major changes during the collapse process.

In quant-ph/9804006,Buzzacchi, Giudice, and Preparata describe a model ofsonoluminescence based on QED coherent interactions in which thefinal phase of collapse the surface of the "imploding" bubble of H2Oreaches a supersonic velocity with respect to the speed of sound inthe water vapour, there begins a process of compression which, whenthe vapour's density reaches the value of 0.31 g/cm^3, leads to theformation of liquid water in a very short time with the release ofexcess energy (part of the latent heat) as a flash of light with awell defined energy spectrum, both in frequency and intensity,corresponding to a blackbody temperature in excess of 10^5 K, butwith a time coherence that is in disagreement with both the blackbodyand the electron plasma mechanisms.

Theirtheory predicts that: all frequencies are emitted simultaneously,there being no delay effect for the low frequencies with respect tohigh frequencies; the temporal widths do not depend on the nature ofthe bubble gases; the actual values of the widths depend on thedeviations of the imploding interface from sphericity, causing itsdifferent parts to reach the critical density at different times(giving such fluctuations the size of about 10^(-5) cm (the size of aCoherence Domain), and considering a radius velocity at R = R about1.5 x 10^5 cm/s, yields a delta t that is about 60 ps, which is aboutthe right size; and, regarding the coherence of the SL ashes, thetheory predicts good coherence properties, for the observed e.m.radiation originates from the classical currents associated with thetwo-level oscillations of the large number of H2O molecules of thedifferent ( about 150) Coherence Domains. According to their theory,the situation is completely different for diatomic molecules, such asthe N2's or O2's of air; their transformation into highly interactivefree radicals will lead to their disappearance from the bubble, whichmay also explain why for purely diatomic gases SL is so unstable andshows very strange memory effects.

In quant-ph/9904008,Liberati, Visser, Belgiorno, and Sciama "... describe an extension ofthe quantum-vacuum approach to sonoluminescence proposed severalyears ago by J. Schwinger. [They] ... first consider a modelcalculation based on Bogolubov coefficients relating the QED vacuumin the presence of an expanded bubble to that in the presence of acollapsed bubble. In this way [they] ... derive an estimatefor the spectrum and total energy emitted ... [which is]shown to be proportional to the volume of space over which therefractive index changes, as Schwinger predicted. ...". They go on tosay: "... We have also explained why such a change must be sudden inorder to fit the experimental data. This leads us to propose ... amodel focussed ... on the actual dynamics of the refractive index (asa function of space and time) and not just of the bubble boundary (inSchwinger's original approach the refractive index changes only dueto motion of the bubble wall). This proposal shares the genericpoints of strength attributable to the Casimir route but it is now inprinciple able to implement the required sudden change in therefractive index. .... ...". Inquant-ph/9904013, Liberati, Visser, Belgiorno, and Sciama describethe physical scenario in more detail, saying"... Bubble collapseleads to changes in the spatio-temporal distribution of therefractive index, both via physical movement of the dielectrics, andthrough the time-dependent properties of the dielectrics. Changes inthe refractive index drive changes in the distribution of zero-pointmodes, and this change in zero-point modes is reflected in realphoton production. ... Sonoluminescence cannot be directly related tothe static Casimir effect. (The static Casimir effect is relevantonly insofar as it gives an approximate value for the energy budget).We hope that the investigation of this paper will convince everyonethat only models dealing with the actual mechanism of particlecreation ... will be able to eventually prove or disprove thepertinence of the physics of the quantum vacuum to Sonoluminescence.... There now can be no doubt that bubble collapse (and theassociated change in Casimir energy) leads to production of realphotons - the controversial issues now move to quantitative ones ofprecise fitting of the observed experimental data. ...". In quant-ph/9905034,they consider finite volume effects. In quant-ph/9904018,Liberati, Visser, Belgiorno, and Sciama "... propose afundamental test for probing the thermal nature of the spectrumemitted by sonoluminescence. ... two-photon correlations can inprinciple discriminate between real thermal light and thequasithermal squeezed-state photons typical of models based on thedynamic Casimir effect. ... For thermal light one should find thermalvariance for photon couples. On the other hand, thermofield-likephotons should show zero variance in appropriate pair correlations....".


According to a5 March 2002 article by David Whitehouse for the BBC:

"... According to Professor Richard Lahey, ... at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, ... as the bubbles in the acetone collapsed due to the ultrasound pulse, they produced miniscule amounts of energy. It is believed that the bubble collapse causes a momentary shock wave that creates high pressures, high temperatures and a flash of light, which scientists call sonoluminescence ... The research, to be published in Friday's issue of the journal Science, was done at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee and at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in New York (both US). The scientists fired sound waves through acetone, causing minute bubbles in the liquid to collapse at temperatures of millions of degrees to produce small flashes of light. It is within these collapsed bubbles, the researchers say, that the nuclei of atoms fuse, releasing energy in the same way that the Sun does. ... If science ever does find a way to build a practical nuclear fusion reactor on Earth, it would transform society as the "fuel" could be derived from water....".



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