Tony's Home 240 Thoughts
| Gravity | Vacuum| BEC | Sonoluminescence| Water Structure |
| Atomic Clusters - EVOs| Cells and Chips | QiField | DNA and Genetic Code |
| Quantum Computing and SuperluminalInformation | Communication |
| NanoMachines and the Second Law |DARPA |
JacquesBenveniste, JacquesBenveniste, Yolene Thomas, and others claim to have establishedexperimentally a Memory ofWater. BrianJosephson, in a letterto the New Scientist, says: "... advocates of homeopathicremedies attribute their effects not to molecules present in thewater, but to modifications of the water's structure. Simple-mindedanalysis may suggest that water, being a fluid, cannot have astructure of the kind that such a picture would demand. But casessuch as that of liquid crystals, which while flowing like an ordinaryfluid can maintain an ordered structure over macroscopic distances,show the limitations of such ways of thinking. There have not, to thebest of my knowledge, been any refutations of homeopathy that remainvalid after this particular point is taken into account. ...".
According to a15 March 2001 article by Lionel Milgrom in the Guardian: "... Aconsortium of four independent research laboratories in France,Italy, Belgium, and Holland, led by Professor M Roberfroid atBelgium's Catholic University of Louvain in Brussels, used arefinement of Benveniste's original experiment that examined anotheraspect of basophil activation. The team knew that activation ofbasophil degranulation by aIgE leads to powerful mediators beingreleased, including large amounts of histamine, which sets up anegative feedback cycle that curbs its own release. So the experimentthe pan-European team planned involved comparing inhibition ofbasophil aIgE-induced degranulation with "ghost" dilutions ofhistamine against control solutions of pure water. In order to makesure no bias was introduced into the experiment by the scientistsfrom the four laboratories involved, they were all "blinded" to thecontents of their test solutions. In other words, they did not knowwhether the solutions they were adding to the basophil-aIgE reactioncontained ghost amounts of histamine or just pure water. But that'snot all. The ghost histamine solutions and the controls were preparedin three different laboratories that had nothing further to do withthe trial. The whole experiment was coordinated by an independentresearcher who coded all the solutions and collated the data, but wasnot involved in any of the testing or analysis of the data from theexperiment. Not much room, therefore, for fraud or wishful thinking.So the results when they came were a complete surprise. Three of thefour labs involved in the trial reported a statistically significantinhibition of the basophil degranulation reaction by the ghosthistamine solutions compared with the controls. The fourth lab gave aresult that was almost significant, so the total result over all fourlabs was positive for the ghost histamine solutions. Still, ...Professor Madeleine Ennis of Queen's University Belfast ... was notsatisfied. "In this particular trial, we stained the basophils with adye and then hand-counted those left coloured after the histamine-inhibition reaction. You could argue that human error might enter atthis stage." So she used a previously developed counting protocolthat could be entirely automated. This involved tagging activatedbasophils with a monoclonal antibody that could be observed viafluorescence and measured by machine. The result, shortly to bepublished in Inflammation Research, was the same: histaminesolutions, both at pharmacological concentrations and diluted out ofexistence, lead to statistically significant inhibition of basophileactivation by aIgE, confirming previous work in this area. "Despitemy reservations against the science of homoeopathy," says Ennis, "theresults compel me to suspend my disbelief and to start searching fora rational explanation for our findings." She is at pains to pointout that the pan-European team have not reproduced Benveniste'sfindings nor attempted to do so. ...".
According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, "... The water moleculeis not linear but bent in a special way. As a result, part of themolecule is negatively charged and part positively charged. It isthus a highly polar molecule. Hydrogen atoms in water molecules areattracted to regions of high electron density and can form weaklinkages, called hydrogen bonds, with those regions. This means thatthe hydrogen atoms in one water molecule are attracted to thenon-bonding electron pairs of the oxygen atom on an adjacent watermolecule. As a result, water molecules associate strongly. In anice crystal,
the association is a highly ordered but loose structure. When theice melts, this orderly arrangement breaks down partially and themolecules pack more closely together. This makes the liquid denserthan the solid, which is why ice forms on top of liquid water. Theassociative force, however, is still strong enough to prevent watermolecules from separating completely even at room temperature. Thiscontinued association in the liquid state accounts for the highboiling point of water. The structure of liquid water is believed toconsist of aggregates of water molecules that form and re-formcontinually. This short-range order, as it is called, accounts forother unusual properties of water, such as its high viscosity andsurface tension. The polarity of the water molecule plays a majorpart in the formation of aqueous solutions...."
According to KeithJohnson, in physics/9807058, clusters of water molecules existoptimally in certain Magic Numbers and in configurations such asBuckyball pentagonal dodecahedral structures with a closed, ideallyicosahedral symmetry formed by 20 hydrogen-bonded water molecules,with their oxygen atoms at the vertices of 12 concatenated pentagonsand with 10 free exterior hydrogen atoms. Coupling of thesedelocalized oxygen orbitals with the low-frequency cluster vibronicmodes via the dynamical Jahn-Teller effect may make water buckyballscatalytic electron reservoirs and oxygenates in fuel combustion andactive agents in biological systems. The broad electronic and uniquelow-frequency vibronic spectra of water buckyballs may explaincertain diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) and far-infrared,ultraviolet and x-ray cosmic background radiation.
When metals such as Palladium, that can absorb large volumes ofHydrogen, are placed in water, phenomena related to ColdFusion can occur. Interesting phenomena, perhaps related toFAR FIELD Transverse VirtualGravitons, may also occur when atoms, or Clustersof Atoms, of metals such as Palladium are in aqueoussolution.
According to aClackamas Community College web page:
"...[For]... the self-ionization of pure water ... The concentrations of both H3O+ and OH- are 1.0 x 10-7 M. ... If the concentration of H3O+ goes up by a factor of 10, to become 1.0 x 10-6 M, then the concentration of the OH- goes down by a factor of 10 become 1.0 x 10-8 M. ...".
According to anNYU web page on the work of Mark Tuckerman:
"... In liquid water, H2O molecules form a complex network in which they are connected by hydrogen bonds, a hydrogen atom between two oxygen atoms in a roughly linear arrangement. Each water molecule is surrounded on average by four other water molecules. Adding or removing a proton (H+) in liquid water creates a defect in the water network that is transported by making and breaking of bonds within the system. H3O+, or hydronum ions, the fundamental component in acids, are formed when protons are added and latch on to water molecules. Hydronium ions are surrounded, on average, by three water molecules. Suppose water molecule A (see diagram panel a below)
is connected to H3O+ by a hydrogen bond and water molecule B is connected to A by a hydrogen bond. Proton conduction in acids occurs when the hydrogen bond between A and B breaks leaving A surrounded by only two other water molecules and the H3O+ (panel b).This is followed by a transfer of the proton from H3O+ to water molecule A (panel c). The whole process takes only one millionth of one millionth of a second.
Where H3O+ corresponds to an excess proton, hydroxide, or OH- ions, the fundamental component in basic solutions, were long thought to constitute "proton holes" and, therefore, to have chemical properties analogous to those of hydronium. In particular it was thought that proton conduction in basic solutions could be viewed as a kind of chemical "mirror image'' of its acidic counterpart. The team's study demonstrated that, in fact, no such simple chemical analogy exists between H3O+ and OH-. For example, the team showed that OH- is surrounded, on average, by 4-5 water molecules, quite unlike the hydronium case. Moreover, proton conduction in bases requires more complicated rearrangements of water molecules than in acids (see diagram panels b and c below).
Finally, the process is strongly influenced by a phenomenon known as quantum tunneling, a phenomenon that can occur at the microscopic level, which allows particles to traverse spatial regions they normally should not, provided they do it quickly enough. The team carried out the study by solving the fundamental equations that govern how the system develops in time on a supercomputer. ... These findings are reported in a letter to Nature entitled "The Nature and Transport Mechanism of Hydrated Hydroxide Ions in Aqueous Solution." ...".
D.L. Marrin notes that the tetrahedral Hydrogen bonds of water( in which half of the tetrahedralbonds from Oxygen to Oxygen are covalentand half Hydrogen, unlike the purely covalent Carbon-Carbontetrahedralbonds of Diamond ) "... are not'fixed' in time and space. ..." and that even in frozen water Ice theHydrogen bonds "... are able to re-shuffle at the rate of about atrillion times per second. The manner in which this re-shufflingoccurs is described by a probability function and may be representedby a random binary network, similar to that of a computer. From theperspective of cybernetics, the Hydrogen bond network in water may beconsidered a self-organizing system that behaves chaotically. ...water molecules that are in contact with other surfaces (e.g. air) orwith solutes (e.g. salts, organic molecules) arrange themselves intoa variety of geometries that impart changes to the network. In thismanner, water is capable of discerning 'self'' from 'non-self' andinteracting with its environment. Recent findings suggest that thebreaking and forming of Hydrogen bonds between macromolecules andsurrounding water molecules substantially influences the 3-Dstructure of proteins and nucleic acids. ...".
According to PhysicsNews Preview
and Physics News Update (Number 410) of the AIP,Isaacs, Shukla, Platzman, Hamann, Barbiellini, and Tulk, in the 18January 1999 issue of Physical Review Letters, "... [study]the properties of many Compton-scattered photons ... to measure ...[the] ... ground-state electronic wavefunction [ofice] ... The ground-state wavefunction in ice indicates thatthere is a quantum-mechanical overlap of the electrons on neighboringH2O molecules, i.e., that the hydrogen bond is partly covalent. ...the weak hydrogen bonds between H2O molecules in ice get part oftheir identity from stronger covalent bonds within the H2O molecule.... The two relatively strong electronic bonds that make up the H2Omolecule itself are represented in the figure by the darker yellowclouds ... While the intermolecular bonds, or hydrogen bonds, areprimarily electrostatic in nature, in which the molecules areattracted by means of separated electric charges, [they]found that the bond is in part quantum mechanical, or covalent innature, in which electrons are spread out and shared between atoms.The quantum-mechanical or wavelike aspect of this bond is depicted bythe lighter yellow clouds. ... Figure courtesy of Bell Labs/LucentTechnologies ... Delocalization plays an important role indetermining the behavior of superconductors and other electricallyconducting materials at sufficiently low temperatures. ... ".
According to AIPPhysics News Update Number 648 #1, 1 August 2003, by Schewe, Riordon,and Stein: "... A water molecule's chemical formula is really notH2O, at least from the perspective of neutrons and electronsinteracting with the molecule for only attoseconds (less than10^(-15) seconds). According to new and recent experiments, neutronsand electrons colliding with water for just attoseconds will see aratio of hydrogen to oxygen of roughly 1.5 to 1, so a more accurateformula for water under these circumstances would be H1.5O. ... Thestory begins in 1995. At the ISIS neutron spallation facility in theUK, a German-British collaboration collided epithermal neutrons(those with energies of up to a few hundred electron volts) with atarget that included water molecules ... Detecting the number andenergy loss of the scattered neutrons in the resultingattosecond-scale collisions, the researchers noticed that neutronswere scattering from 25% fewer protons than expected. Apparently, theprotons in hydrogen were sometimes "invisible" to the neutron probes.... theoretical considerations suggest the presence of short-lived(sub-femtosecond) entanglement, in which protons in adjacent hydrogenatoms (and possibly the surrounding electrons) are all interlinked insuch a way as to change the nature of the scattering results.Realizing that water itself has anomalous properties, the researchersrepeated the neutron experiments in other more typical molecules, forinstance in benzene (conventionally noted as C6H6). In that case,they found that the neutrons saw a ratio of hydrogen to carbon of 4.5to 6! Meanwhile, this effect was also confirmed in varioushydrogen-containing metals, in a collaboration with UppsalaUniversity in Sweden. Now, the researchers (with new colleagues inAustralia) have decided to use an independent experimental method toverify this effect. In experiments at Australian National Universityin Canberra, the researchers used electron probes instead ofneutrons, as the two particles interact with protons viafundamentally different forces (strong and electromagneticinteractions). Scattering electrons from a solid polymer calledformvar (with basic building block C8H14O2), they observed the exactsame shortfall in scattered electrons from hydrogen nuclei,comparable to the shortfall of scattered neutrons in accompanyingneutron experiments on the same polymer. This supports the earlierresults on water and other systems. ...".
According to a7 November 2001 article by Andy Coghlan in TheNew Scientist: "... Conventional wisdom says that the dissolvedmolecules simply spread further and further apart as a solution isdiluted. But two chemists have found that some do the opposite:they clump together, first as clusters of molecules, then asbigger aggregates of those clusters. ... German chemist KurtGeckeler and his colleague Shashadhar Samal stumbled on the effectwhile investigating fullerenes at their lab in the KwangjuInstitute of Science and Technology in South Korea. ... "When hediluted the solution, the size of the fullerene particles increased,"says Geckeler. ... To make the otherwise insoluble buckyball dissolvein water, the chemists had mixed it with a circular sugar-likemolecule called a cyclodextrin. When they did the same experimentswith just cyclodextrin molecules, they found they behaved thesame way. So did the organic molecule sodium guanosinemonophosphate, DNA and plain old sodium chloride.Dilution typically made the molecules cluster into aggregates fiveto 10 times as big as those in the original solutions. The growth wasnot linear, and it depended on the concentration of the original.... "... The more dilute it starts, the larger the aggregates," saysGeckeler. ... it only worked in polar solvents like water, inwhich one end of the molecule has a pronounced positive charge whilethe other end is negative. ... Diluting a remedy may increase thesize of the particles to the point when they become biologicallyactive. ... Benveniste ... does notthink the new findings explain his resultsbecause the solutions were not dilute enough. ...".
Sea-Water is even more complexthan pure H2O.
Clustersof atoms, perhaps interacting through FARFIELD Transverse Virtual Gravitons, exhibit interestingphenomena, examples ofwhich include:
The aqueous solution phenomenon ofCold Fusion.
Extraordinary Quantum Properties of Massive Gold Clusters:According to an April 17, 1997, announcement by Dr.Robert L.Whetten, Professor of Physics and Chemistry at GeorgiaTech, a new series of highly stable and massive gold-clustermolecules that possess a set of extraordinary quantum properties. ...Each molecule in the new series has a compact, crystalline gold core.This pure metallic core, just one-to-two billionths of a meter (1-2nanometers) across, is encapsulated within a shell of tightly packedhydrocarbon chains linked to the core via sulfur atoms. The principalmembers of the series have core-masses of about 14,000; 22,000 and28,000 protons, corresponding to about 75, 110 and 145 gold atoms,respectively, and are thus in the same mass range as larger proteinmolecules. ... The precise structures of the cores are ... unknown.... The conduction electrons of the clusters are quantized both intheir number -- charge quantization -- and in the states they canoccupy -- energy quantization. ... In crystals larger than a fewnanometers, these effects can only be observed and used at very lowtemperatures, such as that of liquid helium, near absolute zero. ...The new gold cluster materials are the first to exhibit thecharge-quantization effect in a macroscopically obtained material,for which every cluster behaves identically. The Micron-Scale ofthe massive gold-cluster molecules suggests involvement of theElectronMicron-Scale GravitoEMInduction Region, while it is possible that thecompact gold core structure could involve the QuarkNanometer-Scale GravitoEMInduction Region.
The high energy yield of explosions of clusters of Xenon atomswhen hit by ultrashort (150 fsec), high-intensity (2 x 10^16 W/cm^2)laser pulses. It is not yet understood why clusters explode so muchmore violently than molecules (producing 1 MeV ions as opposed to 100eV ions), according to scientists at Imperial College (London) asreported in PhysicsNews Update Number 311 (Story #1), March 13, 1997 by Phillip F.Schewe and Ben Stein, who say "The researchers look on theirexplosions as a novel and modest way of achieving high-temperatureplasmas in a gas of clusters. They point to the possibility oftabletop fusion experiments.", citing T. Ditmire et al., Nature, 6March 1997. The 1 MeV energy level suggests involvement of theSU(3) Color Force as opposed to U(1) Electromagnetism, and thereforeinvolvement of the QuarkNanometer-Scale GravitoEMInduction Region.
In water containing biomolecules, quantum phenomena cause filaments to grow into microtubules. Microtubules in living cells, including brain cells, may interact via Electron Micron-Scale GravitoEM Induction Region phenomena, thus producing Consciousness.
Jack Sarfatti says "... It is interesting that the WheelerGravitoEM Induction Region formula foran electron gives large curvature fluctuation ... out to a micron. Isthere some kind of electron-neutrino-quantumgravity resonance here on the mesoscopic scale of a micron? ...".
Further, OSCILLATIONS betweenmu-neutrinos (Compton radius ofabout a micron) and e-neutrinos(Compton radius as big as our universe ) might form some sort oflink between cell-levelindividual consciousness and universe-levelcollective consciousness.
B. J.Baars proposes criteria for locating conscious and unconsciousactivities in the living brain. The criteria are applied to speechand visual brain scans, and single-cell recording methods. Baarssuggests that we may be within reach of a genuine psychoscope thatactually sees the images of a person's thoughts.
Consciousness may be based on the principles of Quantum Computers, which may be more effective if they are based on optical computation using photons and/or carbon structures like diamond or buckystructures and/or DNA molecules, rather than present-day conventional solid-state silicon structures and electrons.
Diamonds can be produced by Supernovae,by geological processes on Earth, and by synthesis. According toa 21 August 1999 article in theLondon Telegraph by Charles Laurence in Gainesville, Florida:
"... Prof Reza Abbaschian ... reveals a selection of perfectly-faceted diamonds in astonishing colours. He said: "Actually, they are better than natural diamonds because we have learned to control the process. We can improve on nature because we can choose the quality, and the colour - and even the shape. These are rough, uncut, and - look! - they look finished." He pats a huge, round, drum-like mould humming just behind him. It is only two and a half feet across and four feet tall, but it is made of solid steel and weighs two and a half tons. Deep in its core, in a little space not much bigger than a thimble, a diamond is growing. Abbaschian, an Iranian by birth, said: "What I am interested in is the making of new materials. These diamonds will be for jewels, but I am looking for the material of the 21st century, the material that will replace the silicon chip." Diamonds, he explains, are a pure carbon crystal and he is simply making them from another form of pure carbon which, as every school-age scientist knows, is graphite. All it takes is a secret catalyst, a carbon "seed", a temperature of 1,700°C, and a pressure of 55,000 atmospheres. Those conditions are a little like the molten centre of the Earth where God or nature invented the diamond long, long ago. ... Abbaschian makes his in five days. ... The Soviets ... had been trying to make diamonds for years. ... Vasili Kachalau, a sad-faced Russian technician not yet quite able to believe his luck in arriving in Florida with his machines, explains that they just wanted to make "windows" for the guidance systems of nuclear rockets, and for ultraviolet and radiation detection instruments capable of watching Chernobyl meltdowns. ... Gen Carter Clarke ... formed a company called Gemesis, went into partnership with the university, and raised the money to buy the old Soviet machines and ship them home. ... there will be jewellery. It will be novel - coloured diamonds are so rare and so popular that a New York jeweller recently offered a half-carat blue for $250,000 (£156,250) - ... Clarke said: "... The average diamond ring costs about $2,000 [£1,250], for about a quarter carat. Ours will be a carat or more and cost somewhere between that $2,000 and, say, double that. ..." ....".
In quant-ph/0104028,Nonclassical radiation nanocrystals, Beveratos, Brouri, Gacoin,Poizat, and Grangier say:
"... The quantum properties of the uorescence light emitted by diamond nanocrystals containing a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) colored center is investigated. We have observed photon antibunching with very low background light. This system is therefore a very good candidate for the production of single photon on demand. In addition, we have measured larger NV center lifetime in nanocrystals than in the bulk, in good agreement with a simple quantum electrodynamical model. ... Manipulation of nanocrystals is a lot more exible than bulk crystals. Straightforward improvement of the light collection efficiency should be possible by letting the nanocrystal sit on a metallic mirror, or inserting it in a microcavity ... These results show that diamond nanocrystals o er all the required properties for the realization of efficient single photon sources for quantum information systems. ...".
Since photons are U(1) abelian gauge bosons, they do not interact with each other at tree-level. To get interactions for use in computations, you have to use higher-order interactions, which are suppressed by the electromagnetic fine structure constant, or indirect non-linear interactions intermediated by material such as optically non-trivial crystals or fibres.
The Qi Field can be used forhealing.
J.Acosta-Urquidi,of the Department of Radiology of the University of WashingtonMedical Center in Seattle, found that some Qi healers, when theywere sending Qi energy, had EEGs with above normal baseline values ofcoherence phase and asymmetry which revealed complex patterns andincreased lateralization (although increases in overall average alpha(8-12 Hz) , theta (4-8 Hz) , and delta (0.1-4 Hz) power were small).When sending Qi, the Qi healers had new and robust BioelectricFrequency Analyser signals from the head, chest and 1-3 ft. distance(BFA frequency resonances, range 3.8-22.8Hz, mean 14.8+- 7, N = 14).
The Qi Field is called a biofield by A.Detela in his work that describes it as a three-dimensional webwoven of vibrating electric and magnetic fields. Lines of thesefields are like tiny threads in a three-dimensional textile. Theseelectromagnetic fields display very complex internal organisation. Wefind a peculiar kind of chiral solutions to Maxwell equations, whichdo not dissipate energy and lead to stable field structures. This isthe so-called informational basis of the biofield. The simpleststructures of these kind are toroidal knots. When electric chargewith very light mass enters the informational biofield, non-linearphenomena take place. These non-linear phenomena are based uponbifurcations in internal electric currents and upon resonance effectsbetween currents and fields. We find an evolution of the fieldstructure. This evolution is a syntropic process, oriented in time.There are several obvious conditions for syntropic behavior and oneof them is quantum coherence in the states of electric charge.Biofield always comprises both : the informational basis and theevolutionary component. Both are necessary. The first obeys thelinear Maxwell equations and preserves the structural form of thebiofield. Linearity leads to superposition of many differentnon-local states, therefore to a great capacity of informationstorage. The second is responsible for evolution of the biofield fromprimitive toroidal knots to very complex forms (with many knots)which show all the features of life. The structure of biofield is inclose correspondence with the molecular structure of livingorganisms. The discrete knots in the biofield web are in interactionwith discrete atoms and molecules in living cells, therefore biofieldcan regulate many processes in living cells. The most probablecandidates for this interaction are chiral molecular structures ofproteins and nucleotides, for example microtubules and DNAhelices.
G.Rein proposes that DNAfunctions as antennae for quantum fields of consciousness. In thecase of DNA, quantum coherencehas been measured experimentally by virtue of the time decay of thephotons it emits (Popp FA, Ruth B et al. Emission of visible andultraviolet radiation by active biological systems CollectivePhenomon 3: 187-214, 1981) . Furthermore, electron propagation downits center axis has been measured at superconducting speeds (Clery,DNA goes electric Science 267: pp. 1270, 1995) . Another uniqueproperty of nucleic acids is based on recent electron micrographsshowing DNA in the tertiary structure of a toroid (Hud NV, DowningKH, Balhorn R. A constant radius of curvature model for theorganization of DNA in toroidal condensates, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.92: 3581-3585, 1995) . A mechanism is proposed for the resonancesbetween energy fields of consciousness and the energetic template ofDNA. Such a mechanism is supported by recent experimental evidencefor an energetic template of DNA using laser correlation spectroscopy(Poponin V The DNA phantom effect: direct measurement of a new fieldin the vacuum substructure J. Nanobiology, 1998 (accepted forpublication)). Individuals who could generate different intentionalstates of consciousness focused their intention to either unwind orwind the two strands which make up the DNA helix. Conformationalchanges were measured by standard biochemical methods using UVabsorption spectroscopy at 260 nm. For a typical experiment eightaliquots of human placental DNA (Sigma Chemical Co, St. Louis) weretransferred to identical sealed test tubes giving a finalconcentration of 20ug/ml distilled water. Four aliquots were measuredbefore treatment and four aliquots were measured immediately after a15 minute treatment. Control experiments were done exactly the sameexcept the tubes were left on the benchtop instead of receiving atreatment. Control samples showed a natural tendency to unwind withan increase in absorption of 1.09 % +/- 0.8. Samples treated with theconscious intention to unwind DNA caused a larger increase inabsorption from 2-10% depending on the experiment. Samples treatedwith the intention to wind DNA produced a decrease in absorption from2-5 %. These effects, which are statistically significant, indicatethat DNA is sensitive to the informational content of consciousnessand support the hypothesis presented here.
According to the NewScientist of 13 Febraury 1999, Jacqueline Barton and hercolleagues at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadenapublished an article in Chemistry & Biology (vol 6, number 2, p85) in which they show that single electrons can shoot far enoughalong DNA to influence geneactivity. Last year Barton and her colleagues showed that electronscan pass through short stretches of DNA by hopping between theoverlapping electron clouds of adjacent nucleotide bases, themolecular building blocks of DNA. Together, the disc-shaped electronclouds of each individual base form stacks which serve as anelectron-rich pathway for conducting electrical signals. This time,they found that signals could span 60-base chunks of DNA 20nanometres long, a stretch long enough to code for 20 amino acids.DNA promoters, the molecular "switches" that turn on adjacent genes,are typically this length. The team concluded that in theory, thereis no limit to the distance signals could travel along DNA. But theteam also found that specific sequences of DNA bases will stop thesignals. These "insulating" regions consist of single or multiplepairings between the two DNA bases adenine (A) and thymine (T). "Theyserve as electronic hinges in the circuit," Barton says.
Katritch, Bednar, Michoud, Scharien, Dubochet, and Staslak, (Nature 384 (14 Nov 96) 142 and 114) show that for a given knot, there is an ideal form that is practically the form whereby the shortest tube of given radius can form the knot. They find that knotted DNA seems to occur in such an ideal form. Understanding the genetic code information structure of DNA and the interrelationships of carbon-DNA-based life forms should not only lead to medical advances, but also to understanding of information structures used in other forms of life.
Optical Tachyons in Parametric Amplifiers: How Fast Can QuantumInformation Travel?, by Kurizki, Kozhekin, Kofman, and Blaauboer,quant-ph/9805040,discusses examples of superluminal (faster-than-c) group velocities,which express the peak advancement of electromagnetic pulses reshapedby material media:
The ChiaoGroup at Berkeley is investigating superluminality. RyanFrewin, Renee George, Deborah Paulson have a web page aboutsuperluminality, in which they say: "...
William D.Walker, in physics/0001063, has shown "... that electromagneticnear-field waves and wave groups, generated by an oscillatingelectric dipole, propagate much faster than the speed of light asthey are generated near the source, and reduce to the speed of lightat about one wavelength from the source. The speed at which wavegroups propagate (group speed) is shown to be the speed at which bothmodulated wave information and wave energy density propagate. Becauseof the similarity of the governing partial differential equations,two other physical systems (magnetic oscillating dipole, andgravitational radiating oscillating mass) are noted to have similarresults. ...".
According to PhysicsNews Update Number 598 #1, 17 July 2002, by Phil Schewe, JamesRiordon, and Ben Stein: "... Australian researchers haveexperimentally shown that microscopic systems (a nano-machine) mayspontaneously become more orderly for short periods of time--adevelopment that would be tantamount to violating the second law ofthermodynamics, if it happened in a larger system. ... The newexperiment also potentially has important ramifications for anunderstanding of the mechanics of life on the scale of microbes andcells. ... The researchers used optical tweezers to grab hold of amicron-sized bead and drag it through water. By measuring the motionof the bead and calculating the minuscule forces on it, theresearchers were able to show that the bead was sometimes kickedby the water molecules in such a way that energy was transferred fromthe water to the bead. In effect, heat energy was extracted from thereservoir and used to do work (helping to move the bead) inapparent violation of the second law ... the second law is notentirely valid for systems as large as the bead-and-water experiment,and for periods on the order of seconds ... a cubic micron of watercontains about thirty billion molecules. ... nanoscale machines... may even end up running backwards for brief periods due tothe counterintuitive energy flow. The research may also be importantto biologists because many of the cells and microbes they studycomprise systems comparable in size to the bead-and-waterexperiment. (G.M. Wang et al., Physical Review Letters, 29 July2002.) ...".
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