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could influence the Future of the Human Civilization of the Global World Order.
is widely accepted by religions and traditions from Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, to Buddhism and Taoism, and many others. Influence of this type is evident all through History.
so Ideas might be regarded as Information Based Life Forms. The influence of Ideas on History is undeniable.
have affected the History of life on Earth.
The 1346-1353 Black Death plague Microbes from the Asian part of Earth killed about a third of the people of the Eurpean part of Earth. The reduction of population and destabilization of the economic order encourage the application of technology to replace a labor-intensive agrarian economy with a capital-intensive industrial economy.
The World War I flu of 1918 probably originated in March of 1918 in Ft. Riley, Kansas, from whence it was taken to the trenches of Europe and to the homes of returning soldiers. It killed over 20,000,000 people on Earth (including my pregnant grandmother, Clara Dodd Smith (on 29 January 1919) and about 600,000 other USA citizens). One USA doctor was successful in treating it. Dr. Bird, of Valdosta, Georgia, USA, was returning to the USA from Europe on a World War I troop ship in 1918. Many of the troops got the flu, and Dr. Bird observed that most of the officers died and most of the enlisted men lived. The enlisted men got no cool fresh air, no cold compresses, and no cold drinks, so that their fever was not artificially reduced. When Dr. Bird arrived home in Valdosta, he treated his civilian patients by keeping them covered with blankets and maintaining high fever. Other Valdosta doctors said he was crazy and inhumane, but their patients (who got fresh air and cold compresses) died, while Dr. Bird's patients lived. Then the other doctors copied Dr. Bird, and said that he was brilliant.
Just after World War II the AIDS pandemic originated. In 1998, David D. Ho from the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, Rockefeller University, New York, and his colleagues, discovered the earliest then known case of HIV-1 infection from a blood plasma sample collected in early 1959 from an adult Bantu male living in Leopoldville, Belgian Congo (now Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of Congo). They say that the common ancestor of all AIDS viruses probably originated in Africa just after World War II, in the 1940s or 1950s. Conjectures about originating factors include post-World War II biological warfare research and contaminated polio vaccines used in Africa. In his review of Edward Hooper's book The River (Little, Brown) in The New York Times, 30 November 1999, Lawrence K. Altman said:
"... In ``The River,'' Edward Hooper finds disturbing links between an experimental oral polio vaccine being given ... in Leopoldville (now Kinshasa, Congo) in 1959 and the beginnings of the AIDS virus. The virus, he says, could have originated in chimpanzee tissues that he suggests were used to make the vaccine. ... He finds close coincidence in both time and place between the earliest cases of AIDS and the testing of an oral vaccine developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia and, later, in two laboratories in Belgium. From 1957 to 1960, the vaccine was given to a million people in what are now Rwanda, Burundi and Congo. If the experimental vaccine was contaminated, nothing could have been done about it because tests for the ancestor virus did not exist then. And it would have been a one-time event because standard polio vaccines were not made from chimpanzee tissues. Of 28 cases of AIDS acquired in specified towns in Africa through 1980, 23 were from the same towns where the experimental vaccine was given or within 175 miles of them. The area is the epicenter of the African epidemic, which is the worst in the world. And there is precedent for a simian virus's lurking in polio vaccine: millions of Americans were inadvertently infected with such a virus, SV-40, in the 1950's and early 1960's. (Fortunately, it was not harmful.) But in 1967, several laboratory workers in Germany died from the newly discovered Marburg virus after it had been imported in African green monkeys. The virus is harmless for the monkeys but lethal for humans. ... H.I.V.'s simian ancestor might have grown in the batches of polio vaccine used in experimental trials only. When the vaccine was squirted into human mouths, the simian virus could have passed through a sore or ulcer and entered the bloodstream, subsequently to evolve into H.I.V.-1. From there it would have been transmitted through sexual or blood-to-blood contact. ... Hooper ... [proposes] ... to find out whether another early case of H.I.V., in a baby born in 1973 to a teenager in New Jersey, could have been linked to the testing of the experimental vaccine at a women's prison in Clinton, N.J. ...".
According to a 30 March 2003 article by M. A. J. McKenna in The Atlanta Journal-Constitution:
"... A health official investigating the worldwide epidemic of unexplained pneumonia ... SARS [severe acute respiratory syndrome] ... has died of the disease in Asia, while thousands more Canadians have been placed under quarantine and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has issued a broad warning against travel to China. Simultaneously, the Atlanta-based CDC asked U.S. patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome to seclude themselves at home for 10 days after their symptoms end, use different bedding, towels and utensils from their families and wear surgical masks as much as possible. ... Coronaviruses, which the CDC believes to be the likely cause of SARS, can survive on contaminated surfaces for ... several hours ... The request for self-quarantine Saturday came as health officials worldwide acknowledged that the illness may spread more easily than they suspected, saying that the virus presumed to cause the disease may move freely through the air ... the CDC warned that it was impossible to predict the course of the epidemic. ... cases were recorded in the United States ... total ... 62, the CDC said. Outside the United States, the World Health Organization put the worldwide toll of the disease at 1,491 cases, including 54 deaths, in 13 countries. There have been no deaths in the United States. ... World health authorities now accept that the original source of SARS was an outbreak of flulike illness that began in southern China in November  and then moved to Hong Kong. ...".
Microbes from Molecular Clouds and Comets, as conjectured by Fred Hoyle in his book The Intelligent Universe (Holt, Rinehart, and Winton 1984) and by Fred Hoyle and Chandra Wickramasinghe in their book Cosmic Life Force (Paragon House 1990) could cause diseases and genetic changes on Earth, and could have been the source of the genetic material for the origin of Life on Earth, not to mention a major source of water of the oceans of the early Earth. Since the Earth was formed only about 4,500 million years ago, and the Fe3O4 Magnetite ferrous Banded Iron formations of Greenland were produced by bacteria about 3,800 million years ago, there was probably not enough time (about 700 million years) for the bacteria to evolve only from simple chemicals on Earth. However, the Sun (about 5,000 million years old) is young relative to our Universe (about 15,330 million years old) so that there was a lot of time prior to the Sun's formation for the microbes of Comets and Molecular Clouds to have formed. Therefore, it is, according to Hoyle, likely that life on Earth was seeded by microbes from encounters with Comets or Interstellar Molecular Clouds.
the Earth itself can be regarded as a life form. Not only the Earth, but also the Sun, the Solar System, Comets, and the more distant Stars, Clouds, and Galaxies, have influenced History.
might communicate throughout our Milky Way Galaxy by Laser Beams gravitationally focussed by Stars. If present-day Humans observed such beams, the beams might be perceived as some sort of unusual physical phenomenon (such as Gamma Ray Bursters), and Humans may be no more aware of the information content of the beams than North American Indians would have been aware of the information carried by Telegraph Lines in the 19th century Western USA . Optical SETI programs at Columbus, Berkeley, and Harvard have begun to look for laser signals, but at longer wavelengths than Gamma Rays.
may or may not have already visited Earth. Most UFO reports are false, and there is a lot of disinformation.
An interesting UFO report is described by Col. Philip J. Corso (USA ret) (in The Day After Roswell Simon & Schuster 1997) some possible past events related to visitation of Earth by Aliens. Even if some or all of the events described by Col. Corso turn out to be untrue disinformation [for example, some have said that events such as those described by Corso could have been related to transfer of World War II - era Nazi technology to USA interests], his accounts of them indicate the type of effects that Alien visitation could have on the future of Earth's Global World Order. Here are some of the events described by Col. Corso, and some corresponding history of semiconductor transistors as described by Michael Riordan and Lillian Hoddeson (in Crystal Fire, W. W. Norton 1997):
March 1940 - At Bell Labs, Ohl and Brattain studied Silicon (in the periodic table column of Carbon, Silicon, Germanium, Tin, and Lead) and found two types of Silicon: P (positive voltage when illuminated, due to some Boron, Aluminum, Gallium, Indium, or Thallium) ) and N (negative voltage when illuminated, due to som Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Arsenic, Antimony, or Bismuth).
March 1946 - At Bell Labs, Bardeen disclosed his theory of surface states with a double layer of charge (negative outside and positive beneath), and Brattain and Pearson conducted experiments using Silicon and Germanium cooled with liquid Nitrogen to try to freeze the surface electrons in place. By April, Brattain had seen small photovoltaic charges.
4 July 1947 - UFO craft crashed during intense thunderstorms near Roswell, New Mexico. Electromagnetic/particle effects of Earth thunderstorms could have disrupted UFO craft electromagnetic systems. USA military recovered crescent-shaped UFO craft near Roswell, New Mexico, and transported some of the recovered material to Fort Bliss, Texas. The recovered material included:
From Fort Bliss, some of the recovered material was shipped to Fort Riley, Kansas, (the probable originating point of the 1918 flu), where Col. Corso, as post duty officer on 6 July 1947, saw some of the recovered material, including an Alien body.
Other recovered material was shipped to the Air Materiel Command at Wright Field (now Wright-Patterson AFB), Ohio, under the command of Lt. Gen. Nathan P. Twining. After consultation with President Harry Truman, Lt. Gen. Twining, sometimes using the U. S. Army Research and Development Foreign Technology Desk as intermediary, released some material to USA industries for reverse engineering, including recovered integrated circuit material to Bell Labs and Motorola.
September 1947 - Brattain saw a photovoltaic effect in Silicon at room temperature. At Bardeen's suggestion, Brattain started using a vibrating electrode on a long stem that could be put inside a thermos bottle to control temperature.
November 1947 - Brattain began to fill the thermos bottle with ethyl alcohol, acetone, and toluene, and his vibrating elecrode produced a larger photovoltiac effect. On 17 November 1947, he used distilled water, got an even larger effect, and realized that the vibrating electrode had a variable potential, which if positive increased the photovoltaic effect and if negative reduced it and could eliminate the effect. By 16 December 1947, using Tin-doped Germanium for good power gain and direct Gold contacts for good frequency response, his Bell Labs group made their first semiconductor amplifier.
February 1948 - At Bell Labs, Shockley announced a design for a solid-state amplifier based on a sandwich of N-P-N layers, the basic idea for the transistor.
June 1948 - Bell Labs got public credit for the transistor, since the USA military did not want it to be classified, and since the Naval Research Laboratory decided not to assert its developments in the field.
1955 - Gen. Douglas MacArthur told the New York Times that "The nations of the world will have to unite for the war will be an interplanetary war. The nations of the Earth must someday make a common front against attack by people from other planets." [Compare General Douglas MacArthur's Thayer Award Speech - Duty, Honor,Country - that was made in 1962 at West Point about 2 years before his death at age 84. In the speech, Gen. MacArthur said: "... You now face a new world, a world of change. The thrust into outer space of the satellite, spheres, and missiles marks a beginning of another epoch in the long story of mankind. In the five or more billions of years the scientists tell us it has taken to form the earth, in the three or more billion years of development of the human race, there has never been a more abrupt or staggering evolution. We deal now, not with things of this world alone, but with the illimitable distances and as yet unfathomed mysteries of the universe. We are reaching out for a new and boundless frontier. We speak in strange terms of harnessing the cosmic energy, ... of creating unheard of synthetic materials to supplement or even replace our old standard basics; ... of ultimate conflict between a united human race and the sinister forces of some other planetary galaxy; of such dreams and fantasies as to make life the most exciting of all times. ..."]
1950s-1960s - USA and USSR produced huge arsenals of nuclear weapons and delivery systems, far more than needed for mutual deterrence of each other, but possibly useful to combat an overt Alien invasion and to insure that if Aliens took control of either USA or USSR, the other could attack the Aliens.
1960 - At Bell Labs, Attala and his group fabricated a MOS (metal-oxide-silicon) field-effect transistor.
April 1961 - (about the end of the chronology in the book Crystal Fire) - Fairchild got the first USA patent for an integrated circuit.
1961 - Lt . Gen. Arthur G. Trudeau (U. S. Army Research and Development), who had served in Korea at Pork Chop Hill under Gen. Douglas MacArthur, gave to Col. Corso (Research and Development Division's Foreign Technology Desk) some of the material recovered in 1947 from Roswell.
1961 - Col. Corso delivered recovered night-vision material to Fort Belvoir, Washington, D. C., for reverse engineering.
1961 - Col. Corso delivered recovered high-energy laser material to Hughes. Eventually, Hughes produced a High Energy Laser antisatellite/antiwarhead weapon for the SDI/Star Wars Space Warfare System.
1962 - Col. Corso delivered recovered fiber-optic filament material to Bell Labs.
1980s - Reagan/Bush administration built SDI/Star Wars Space Warfare System with orbiting satellites that could disable Alien craft by electomagnetic/particle beam weapons, putting the Global World Order on a less unequal footing with the Aliens.
My reasoning (which may be wrong, as I often am) is as follows:
In the 20th century, nuclear energy was the single big thing, and it was done by the Manhattan Project and its offshoots. Look at the people involved: Oppenheimer, Bethe, Teller, etc., and their smartest students such as Feynman, etc. All these highly visible (best and brightest of big institutions) people DISAPPEARED for YEARS to get nuclear weapons to work. The projects were an obvious (to any careful observer) "black hole" of bright people.
Nowadays, the best and brightest of big institutions do NOT disappear. They are at big institutions and their students run around in the highly visible post-doc circuit and then get visible jobs themselves.
As to the other big advances in the 20th century, radar and electronics, math of information theory, etc., they are nowadays fields in which the best and brightest are similarly highly visible.
Since I don't think that second-rate talent can make UFO-technology work, and since I think that almost all the first-rate talent is highly visible, I conclude that the USA is NOT making, and has NOT made, any real advances in ANY really important new areas.
The fact that no other nation or organization has progressed even as far as the USA in weapons technology (both material and information) means that the USA has no motivation to go any further, and in fact would rather freeze the satus quo in which the US has substantial advantages, so the USA probably does NOT WANT any major advances (which might be hard to control) to occur.
From a cynical USA-oriented point of view, you could say that from it is in your best interest of as the USA to maintain a pool of the best and brightest so that you can use them, if necessary, to catch up to anything that some other nation might stumble into, but you don't want them to make any big advances themselves because they might create something difficult to control. Therefore, you would give lots of money and hype and honors to dead-end projects (superstring theory, tokamak fusion, etc) that keeps them together but does not allow them to do anything new and useful.
The Wall Street Journal (20 Mar 97, 23 Feb 98); Scientific American (March 1998); Wired Magazine (July 1997); Earth and Life through Time (2nd ed), by Steven Stanley, Freeman 1989; The Times Atlas of World History, 4th ed., Hammond, Harper-Collins 1993; Solar System Evolution, by Stuart Ross Taylor, Cambridge 1992; Quantum Relativity, by David Finkelstein, Springer 1996; Uncertainty, by David C. Cassidy, Freeman 1992; Carl Gustav Jung, by Frank McLynn, St. Martin's Press 1996; Quantum Field Theory, by Michio Kaku, Oxford 1993; The Second Creation, by Robert P. Crease and Charles C. Mann, Macmillan 1986; Field Geometric Aspects of Quantized Gauge Theories, by Meinhard E. Mayer, Acta Physica Austriaca, Suppl. XXIII (1981) 491-524; QED and the men who made it, by Silvan S. Schweber, Princeton 1994; Thayer's Life of Beethoven, rev. and ed. by Elliot Forbes, Princeton 1967; The Music of the Heavens, by Bruce Stephenson, Princeton 1994; I Ching, by Kerson and Rosemary Huang, Workman 1987; Dinosaurs, Diamonds, and Things from Outer Space, by David Brez Carlisle, Stanford 1995; Earth and Life through Time (2nd ed), by Steven Stanley, Freeman 1989; Quaternary Environments, by M. A. J. Williams et. al., Edward Arnold 1993; When China Ruled the Seas, by Louise Levathes, Simon and Schuster 1994; The Message of the Sphinx, by Graham Hancock and Robert Bauval, Crown 1996; Synchronicity, by F. David Peat, Bantam Books 1987; Arrogant Capital, by Kevin Phillips, Little, Brown and Company 1994; Duchamp, by Janis Mink, Benedict Taschen 1995; Jazz Painting, by Susan Delson; The Definitively Unfinished Marcel Duchamp, ed. by Thierry de Duve, MIT 1991; Black Spark, White Fire, by Richard Poe, Prima 1997; China, A Macro History, by Ray Huang, Sharpe 1990; The First Emperor of China, CD-ROM of Ching-chih Chen 1992; Sailing to Paradise, by Jim Bailey, Simon and Schuster 1994; The Teachings of Hua Loo-Keng: A Challenge Today, by C. Schweigman and S. Zhang, The Mathematical Intelligencer 16 (1994) 36-46; Encyclopaedia Britannica; Snowball Earth article in Nature (1997 March 20) by David Evans and commentary by Alan Kaufman; Serpent in the Sky, by John Anthony West, Quest 1993; Zoroastrianism, by Mary Boyce, Chicago 1984; The Intelligent Universe, by Fred Hoyle, Holt, Rinehart and Winton 1984; The Times Atlas of World History, 4th ed., Hammond, Harper-Collins 1993; Japanese Roots, by Jared Diamond, in Discover June 1998, pp. 86-94; The Scientific Letters and Papers of James Clerk Maxwell, edited by P. M. Harman, Volume II 1862-1873, Cambridge University Press 1995; Science and Civilization in China, by Joseph Needham, Cambridge University Press;
Needham's Science and Civilization in China is many large volumes. A somewhat updated introductory summary is Li, Qi, and Shu, by Ho Peng Yoke (University of Washington Press, 1987).
Maxwell quotations are from the article, To the Committee of the Cayley Portrait Fund, by James Clerk Maxwell, and the book, The Aether, by James Clerk Maxwell, as they in turn were quoted in web pages of Richard Hoagland. It was from those web pages that I learned about Maxwell's use of Quaternions and the 27-line configuration whose symmetry is that of the Weyl group of the E6 Lie algebra that is fundamental to the D4-D5-E6-E7-E8 VoDou physics model, and about the suppression of those aspects of Maxwell's work in textbook treatments of Electromagnetism. Although I do not agree with everything on Richard Hoagland's web pages, I do think that everything there is thought-provoking. As with all web pages, including mine, readers should think about the material and make up their own minds as to which parts of the material they think are substantially correct, which parts are not proven one way or the other, and which parts are substantially incorrect.
Holger Freydank of Dresden, Germany, sent me e-mail in January 2000 letting me know about Andreas Werckmeister's 1691 description of the equal-tempered 12 note per octave scale.
Frederick Knight sent me by e-mail attachment the Earth Lights image used to produce the first image on the Future History page. On that same web page, the Dow Jones chart for 1900-1998 is from The 1998 Wall Street Journal Almanac, and the Dow Jones and Nasdaq charts for 1996-2000 are from the yahoo finance web pages.
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