## Some Phenomena that can be understood in terms of the D4-D5-E6-E7-E8 VoDou Physics Model

### Neutrino Mixing

Consider the three generations of neutrinos:
nu_e (electron neutrino); nu_m (muon neutrino); nu_t
and three neutrino mass states: nu_1 ; nu_2 : nu_3
and
the division of 8-dimensional spacetime into
4-dimensional physical Minkowski spacetime
plus
4-dimensional CP2 internal symmetry space.

The heaviest mass state nu_3 corresponds to a neutrino
whose propagation begins and ends in CP2 internal symmetry space,
lying entirely therein. According to the D4-D5-E6-E7-E8 VoDou
Physics Model the mass of nu_3 is zero at tree-level
but it picks up a first-order correction propagating
entirely through internal symmetry space by
merging with an electron through the weak and electromagnetic forces,
effectively acting not merely as a point
but
as a point plus an electron loop at both beginning and ending points
so
the first-order corrected mass of nu_3 is given by
M_nu_3 x (1/sqrt(2)) = M_e x GW(mproton^2) x alpha_E
where the factor (1/sqrt(2)) comes from the Ut3 component
of the neutrino mixing matrix
so that
M_nu_3 = sqrt(2) x M_e x GW(mproton^2) x alpha_E =
= 1.4 x 5 x 10^5 x 1.05 x 10^(-5) x (1/137) eV =
= 7.35 / 137 = 5.4 x 10^(-2) eV.
Note that the neutrino-plus-electron loop can be anchored
by weak force action through any of the 6 first-generation quarks
at each of the beginning and ending points, and that the
anchor quark at the beginning point can be different from
the anchor quark at the ending point,
so that there are 6x6 = 36 different possible anchorings.

The intermediate mass state nu_2 corresponds to a neutrino
whose propagation begins or ends in CP2 internal symmetry space
and ends or begins in physical Minkowski spacetime,
thus having only one point (either beginning or ending) lying
in CP2 internal symmetry space where it can act not merely
as a point but as a point plus an electron loop.
According to the D4-D5-E6-E7-E8 VoDou Physics Model the mass
of nu_2 is zero at tree-level
but it picks up a first-order correction at only one (but not both)
of the beginning or ending points
so that so that there are 6 different possible anchorings
for nu_2 first-order corrections, as opposed to the 36 different
possible anchorings for nu_3 first-order corrections,
so that
the first-order corrected mass of nu_2 is less than
the first-order corrected mass of nu_3 by a factor of 6,
so
the first-order corrected mass of nu_2 is
M_nu_2 = M_nu_3 / Vol(CP2) = 5.4 x 10^(-2) / 6
= 9 x 10^(-3)eV.

The low mass state nu_1 corresponds to a neutrino
whose propagation begins and ends in physical Minkowski spacetime.
thus having only one anchoring to CP2 interna symmetry space.
According to E8 Physics the mass of nu_1 is zero at tree-level
but it has only 1 possible anchoring to CP2
as opposed to the 36 different possible anchorings for nu_3 first-order corrections
or the 6 different possible anchorings for nu_2 first-order corrections
so that
the first-order corrected mass of nu_1 is less than
the first-order corrected mass of nu_2 by a factor of 6,
so
the first-order corrected mass of nu_1 is
M_nu_1 = M_nu_2 / Vol(CP2) = 9 x 10^(-3) / 6
= 1.5 x 10^(-3)eV.

Therefore:

the mass-squared difference D(M23^2) = M_nu_3^2 - M_nu_2^2 =
= ( 2916 - 81 ) x 10^(-6) eV^2 =
= 2.8 x 10^(-3) eV^2

and

the mass-squared difference D(M12^2) = M_nu_2^2 - M_nu_1^2 =
= ( 81 - 2 ) x 10^(-6) eV^2 =
= 7.9 x 10^(-5) eV^2

The 3 × 3 unitary neutrino mixing matrix neutrino mixing matrix U

nu_1                     nu_2                nu_3

nu_e          Ue1                      Ue2                 Ue3

nu_m          Um1                      Um2                 Um3

nu_t          Ut1                      Ut2                 Ut3

can be parameterized (based on the 2010 Particle Data Book)
by 3 angles and 1 Dirac CP violation phase

c12 c13                        s12 c13                       s13 e−id

U =    − s12 c23 − c12 s23 s13 eid      c12 c23 − s12 s23 s13 eid     s23 c13

s12 s23 − c12 c23 s13 eid    − c12 s23 − s12 c23 s13 eid     c23 c13

where cij = cos(theta_ij) , sij = sin(theta_ij)

The angles are

theta_23 = pi/4 = 45 degrees
because
nu_3 has equal components of nu_m and nu_t so
that Um3 = Ut3 = 1/sqrt(2) or, in conventional
notation, mixing angle theta_23 = pi/4
so that cos(theta_23) = 0.707 = sqrt(2)/2 = sin(theta_23)

theta_13 = 9.594 degrees = asin(1/6)
and cos(theta_13) = 0.986
because sin(theta_13) = 1/6 = 0.167 = |Ue3| = fraction of nu_3 that is nu_e

theta_12 = pi/6 = 30 degrees
because
sin(theta_12) = 0.5 = 1/2 = Ue2 = fraction of nu_2 begin/end points
that are in the physical spacetime where massless nu_e lives
so that cos(theta_12) = 0.866 = sqrt(3)/2

d = 70.529 degrees is the Dirac CP violation phase
ei(70.529) = cos(70.529) + i sin(70.529) = 0.333 + 0.943 i
This is because the neutrino mixing matrix has 3-generation structure
and so has the same phase structure as the KM quark mixing matrix
in which the Unitarity Triangle angles are:
β = V3.V1.V4 = arccos( 2 sqrt(2) / 3 ) ≅ 19.471 220 634 degrees so sin 2β = 0.6285
α = V1.V3.V4 = 90 degrees
γ = V1.V4.V3 = arcsin( 2 sqrt(2) / 3 ) ≅ 70.528 779 366 degrees
The constructed Unitarity Triangle angles can be seen on the Stella Octangula
configuration of two dual tetrahedra (image from gauss.math.nthu.edu.tw):

Then we have for the neutrino mixing matrix:

nu_1                           nu_2                         nu_3

nu_e         0.866 x 0.986                  0.50 x 0.986                 0.167 x e-id

nu_m        -0.5 x 0.707                    0.866 x 0.707                0.707 x 0.986
-0.866 x 0.707 x 0.167 x eid   -0.5 x 0.707 x 0.167 x eid

nu_t         0.5 x 0.707                   -0.866 x 0.707                0.707 x 0.986
-0.866 x 0.707 x 0.167 x eid   -0.5 x 0.707 x 0.167 x eid

nu_1                           nu_2                         nu_3

nu_e         0.853                          0.493                        0.167 e-id

nu_m        -0.354                          0.612                        0.697
-0.102 eid                     -0.059 eid

nu_t         0.354                         -0.612                        0.697
-0.102 eid                     -0.059 eid

Since ei(70.529) = cos(70.529) + i sin(70.529) = 0.333 + 0.943 i
and  .333e-i(70.529) = cos(70.529) - i sin(70.529) = 0.333 - 0.943 i

nu_1                           nu_2                         nu_3

nu_e         0.853                          0.493                        0.056 - 0.157 i

nu_m        -0.354                          0.612                        0.697
-0.034 - 0.096 i               -0.020 - 0.056 i

nu_t         0.354                         -0.612                        0.697
-0.034 - 0.096 i               -0.020 - 0.056 i

for a result of

nu_1                           nu_2                         nu_3

nu_e         0.853                          0.493                        0.056 - 0.157 i

nu_m        -0.388 - 0.096 i                0.592 - 0.056 i              0.697

nu_t         0.320 - 0.096 i                0.632 - 0.056 i              0.697

which is consistent with the approximate experimental values of mixing angles
shown in the Michaelmas Term 2010 Particle Physics handout of Prof Mark Thomson

nu_1                           nu_2                         nu_3

nu_e         0.853                          0.493                        0.056 - 0.157 i

nu_m        -0.388 - 0.096 i                0.592 - 0.056 i              0.697

nu_t         0.320 - 0.096 i                0.632 - 0.056 i              0.697

nu_1                           nu_2                         nu_3

nu_e         0.85                           0.53                         0

nu_m        -0.37                           0.60                         0.71

nu_t         0.37                          -0.60                         0.71

if the matrix is modified by taking into account
the March 2012 results from Daya Bay observing non-zero theta_13 = 9.54 degrees.

` `

### Ken Shoulders's EVOs and Ball Lightning

`For reference, here are values of some useful physical quantities:The effective G* induced by the zero point energy core neededto stabilize a single spatially extended electron is ~ 10^40 G.G* m / r = e / r   G* m = e    G* = e/m = 10^42e        Electron charge        [Q]           1.381 E-34 cmm_e      Electron mass          [M]           9.1095 E-28 gm                                                   6.764 E-56 cmr_e      Electron radius        [L]           2.81794 E-13 cm              classical (= alpha(h-bar/(m_e c))r_es     Electron Schwarzschild radius  [L]   1.35264 E-55 cm              (= 2G_0 m_e/c^2)              22 orders of magnitude *smaller* than the Planck lengtha_0      Bohr radius            [L]           0.529177 E-08 cm              ( = h-bar^2/(m_e e^2) )`

Ken Shoulders and Steve Shoulders said in 1996: "... Highly organized, micron-sized clusters of electrons having soliton behavior ... have been investigated by K. Shoulders since 1980 ... a short Latin acronym has been adopted and the structure is called an EV, for strong electron. Their organizational properties have been theoretically studied and reported by P. Beckmann [... Petr Beckmann, "Electron Clusters," Galilean Electrodynamics, Sept./Oct., Vol. 1, No. 5, pp. 55-58, 1990 ...] and R. Ziolkowski [... Richard W. Ziolkowski and Michael K. Tippett, "Collective effect in an electron plasma system catalyzed by a localized electromagnetic wave," Physical Review A, vol. 43, no.6, pp. 3066-3072, 15 mar., 1991 ...] ... What is seen in the laboratory is an extremely energetic entity ... Measurements ... measuring the charge-to-mass ratio of the structure ...[by]... time-of-flight ... have been made showing there are no included ions to a limit of at least one ion per million electrons. The total number of electrons in a one micrometer diameter EV is 10^11. ...". In 1999 they said: "... Throughout much of this work on EV energetics it has been obvious that we get more energy out of certain experiments than we put in. ...".

In August 2004 e-mail messages about Shoulders's EVOs, Jack Sarfatti said:

"... picture is of a self-assembled spherical shell or maybe a kind of Buckyball of N close-packed electrons each of effective surface area ~ (h/mc)^2. This forms a closed cavity - with some leakage perhaps, but the leakage rate decreases as N increases. Obviously there will be a cavity boundary condition Casimir effect but I am pretty sure it is usually negligible in comparison with my strong gravity effect from Einstein's general relativity. ...

... The KEY IDEA is as follows:

1. The repulsive electro-static self energy per unit electron mass for the N poly-electron cluster is V(Coulomb Self-Energy) ~ N^2e^2/mr > 0 where the N electrons are arranged in a mono-layer thin spherical shell of thickness h/mc ~ 10^-11 cm

i.e. Euclidean area of the shell is A = 4pir^2 = N(h/mc)^2 r ~ N^1/2(h/mc) = Schwarzschild radial coordinate if large space warp ... from G* ~ 10^40G at short-range.

That is, N on-mass-shell bare electrons each of radius e^2/mc^2 ~ 10^-13 cm in a soup of virtual plasma of virtual photons and virtual electron-positron pairs - the latter partially condensed as a vacuum condensate!

... a Casimir force ... plays a minor secondary role. The Casimir potential energy per unit electron mass will be of the form V(Casimir) ~ C(hc/mr)N(h/mcr)^2 Where C is a dimensionless coefficient that can be positive or negative ... Note that V(Casimir) scales only as N because it depends on the surface area of the N poly-electron thin shell. This is a boundary effect!

Ignoring rotational and vibrational modes - to be added later. All we have next is the GR correction term ... V(Dark Energy) = c^2/\zpfr^2 a 3D Harmonic Oscillator Potential like a ball in a tunnel through center of Earth

Note that /\zpf > 0 i.e. an anti-gravity repulsive "dark energy" exotic vacuum core that COUNTER-INTUITIVELY BINDS the N electrons into a metastable BOUNDARY WALL THIN POLY-ELECTRON SHELL making the QED Casimir force in the first place ... Adding all three potential energies Coulomb, Casimir & General Relativity with PW Anderson's "More is Different"

V(total) = BN^2(e^2/mr) + CN(hc/mr)(h/mcr)^2 + c^2/\zpfr^2

B is also a dimensionless coefficient The critical point for dynamical equilibrium is dV(total)/dr = 0 i.e. the total acceleration must vanish in metastable equilibrium where r --> r* -BN^2(e^2/mr*^2) - 3CN(hc/mr*^2)(h/mcr*)^2 + 2c^2/\zpfr* = 0

So I do not care about Casimir force, which when N >> 1 is obviously a small perturbation!

We now have a more accurate formula for r*, or rather, if you want to keep r* = N^1/2(h/mc) then you can compute /\zpf.

We also have the stability constraint: d^V(total)/dr^2 > 0

When this constraint is violated WE HAVE WHAT IS BEGINNING TO SUGGEST A BOMB! ...

... you must explain why the boundary forms! You cannot impose it by fiat. The boundary is the thin shell of charge itself of radius a ~ N^1/2(h/mc). If N ~ 10^12 that gives a ~ 10^-5 cm. ... I don't think it works well for 2 electrons. You need, in simplest model, N >> 1 electrons close-packed to form a sphere ...".

My model for EVOs also makes a spherical shell, but it is a two-layer shell, motivated by the formation of a blastocyst two-layer shell in embryology, and it also explains how the door to the high-energy vacuum is opened.

`Here is an 8-step description of my model:1 - A bunch of electrons are zapped in Ken Shoulders's apparatuswith a complicated electromagnetic field.2 - One of the electrons finds another with opposite spinand they form a Cooper pair of two electronsin a dumbbell configuration.3 - They find another Cooper pair, and the 4 of them forma double-dumbbell tetrahedral configuration.4 - The tetrahedron finds (or catalyzes the formation of)another opposite-oriented tetrahedron, and the 8 of themform a cube.5 - Each of the 8 vertices of the cube finds from the cloudan opposite-spin electron, and the 16 of them look likeCooper pairs at each of the 8 cube verticeswith the long axis of each pair on a diagonal of the cube.`
FORMATION OF THE 16 CONFIGURATION IS LIKE THE MORULA / BLASTOCYST TRANSITION

( At age 4 days, a human embryo consists of a solid ball of 16 cells, called the morula. At the next stage of cell division, the blasocyst forms. Here is a blastocyst image

from http://www.visembryo.com/baby/stage3.html which states: "... Cell division continues, and a cavity known as a blastocele forms in the center of the morula. Cells flatten and compact on the inside of the cavity ... the appearance of the cavity in the center the entire structure is now called a blastocyst. ... two cell types are forming: the embryoblast (inner cell mass on the inside of the blastocele), and the trophoblast (the cells on the outside of the blastocele). ...". )

`THE CENTER OF THE CUBE IS A HOLLOW INTERIOR,with a 2-layer boundary of 8 inner electrons of each Cooper pairand 8 outer electrons of each Cooper pair.The 8 inner electrons can be thought of as being bounded bythe 8 outer electrons.6 - Any energy (kinetic or repulsive electromagnetic) ofthe 8 inner electrons confined by the boundary of the 8 outer electronsis transferred to the Bohm Quantum Potential by the process described in Bohm's Hidden Variable Paper II, section 5,(reprinted at page 387 of Quantum Theory and Measurement,edited by Wheeler and Zurek (Princeton 1983))in which Bohm says:   "... the PSI-field is able to bring the particle to rest   and to transform the entire kinetic energy into potential energy   of interaction with the PSI-field. ...".Bohm discusses specifically the situation of   "... a "free" particle contained between two impenetrable and   perfectly reflecting walls, separated by a distance L. ...",butperhaps a similar analysis might apply to a spherical cluster.Bohm goes on to say:   "... at first sight, it may seem puzzling   that a particle having a high energy should be at rest   in the empty space between two walls.   Let us recall, however, that the space is not really empty,   but contains    an objectively real PSI-field that can act on the particle. ...".7 - The increased energy of the Bohm Quantum Potential isnow enough to open the door to the high-energy vacuum,which effectively gives the electron configurationaccess to conformal degrees of freedom of of vacuum dark energy etc.8 - The electron double-layer with central vacuum energy configuration,which is the EVO, then begins to collect the other electrons inthe cloud, making them into Cooper pairs and sticking them intothe sort-of-spherical double-layer.The outer layer of electrons acts as a protective boundary forthe EVO, because if a hostile electron/positive ion systemattacks the EVO, an outer boundary EVO electron neutralizesthe positive ion and the EVO captures the remaining electronto replace the boundary electron.The entire EVO system continues to grow until the electronsof the cloud are all assimilated into it (about 10^12 electronsin the case of EVOs manufactured by Ken Shoulders).`

Ball lightning can be a lot larger than the size of the Ken Shoulders manufactured EVO because lightning can be more energetic than his machines.

`A typical Ball Lightning has r ~ 10 cm, N = 10^21.Use the hydrogen atom as the basis of comparisonwhere r ~ 10^-8 cm and N = 1with self-electrical force ~ 10^+16compared tothe Ball Lightning self-electrical force 10^42 x 10^-2 = 10^40in these relative dimensionless units.That is,the self-electrical force at thesurface of the Ball Lightning assumed to be in a spherical thin shellis ~ 10^24 stronger than the electrical force onthe atomic electron in the ground state of the hydrogen atom.Next consider a single electron as a shell of charge eat the classical electron radius 10^-13cm.The relative self-electric force is then 10^+26.Therefore,the electrical force of the Ball Lightning isabout 10^14 larger than that on a single electron.The effective G* induced by the zero point energy core neededto stabilize a single spatially extended electron is ~ 10^40 G.That isthe effective Planck length Lp* inthe interior of a single electron is ~ 10^-13 cm.The effective Planck length in the interior of the Ball Lightningis therefore ~ 10^-6 cm since G* ~ Lp^*2.`

......