Geometric volumes needed for calculation of force strengths include:

Force M Vol(M) gravity S^4 8pi^2/3 - S^4 is 4-dimensional color CP^2 8pi^2/3 - CP^2 is 4-dimensional weak S^2 x S^2 2 x 4pi - S^2 is a 2-dim boundary of 3-dim ball 4-dim S^2 x S^2 = = topological boundary of 6-dim 2-polyball Shilov Boundary of 6-dim 2-polyball = S^2 + S^2 = = 2-dim surface frame of 4-dim S^2 x S^ e-mag T^4 4 x 2pi - S^1 is 1-dim boundary of 2-dim disk 4-dim T^4 = S^1 x S^1 x S^1 x S^1 = = topological boundary of 8-dim 4-polydisk Shilov Boundary of 8-dim 4-polydisk = = S^1 + S^1 + S^1 + S^1 = = 1-dim wire frame of 4-dim T^4

Also note that:

From another point of view, the link manifold to the target vertex is trivial for the abelian neutral U(1) photons of Electromagnetism, so we take QE and DE to be equal to unity.

Tony's Home Page ------------------------ Here is a pdf version of this Wireframes ... etc. page.